Assistant Professor of Medicine (Infectious Diseases) and of Microbiology and Immunology


  • Age-related Changes in Malaria Clinical Phenotypes During Infancy are Modified by Sickle Cell Trait. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America Zehner, N., Adrama, H., Kakuru, A., Andra, T., Kajubi, R., Conrad, M., Nankya, F., Clark, T. D., Kamya, M., Rodriguez-Barraquer, I., Dorsey, G., Jagannathan, P. 2021


    BACKGROUND: Young infants are protected against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Mechanisms driving this protection remain unclear due to a poor understanding of malaria clinical phenotypes during infancy.METHODS: We enrolled a birth cohort of 678 infants in Busia, Uganda, an area of high malaria transmission. We followed infants through 12 months of age, and quantified protection against parasitemia and clinical disease.RESULTS: Symptomatic malaria incidence increased from 1.2 to 2.6 episodes per person year between 0-<6 months and 6-12 months of age, while the monthly probability of asymptomatic parasitemia given infection decreased from 32% to 21%. Sickle cell trait (HbAS) was protective against symptomatic malaria (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.57 comparing HbAS vs. HbAA, 95% CI 0.44-0.74, p<0.001), but age modified this relationship (Pint=<0.001), with non-linear protection that waned between 0-9 months of age before increasing. Increasing age was associated with higher parasite densities at the time of infection, and, in infants with HbAS, a reduced ability to tolerate high parasite densities without fever.CONCLUSIONS: Age-dependent changes in HbAS protective efficacy in infancy were accompanied by differential loss of anti-parasite and anti-disease protection among HbAS and HbAA infants. This provides a framework for investigating mechanisms underlying infant protection against malaria.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/cid/ciab245

    View details for PubMedID 33738485

  • Patients with uncomplicated COVID-19 have long-term persistent symptoms and functional impairment similar to patients with severe COVID-19: a cautionary tale during a global pandemic. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America Jacobson, K. B., Rao, M., Bonilla, H., Subramanian, A., Hack, I., Madrigal, M., Singh, U., Jagannathan, P., Grant, P. 2021


    To assess the prevalence of persistent functional impairment after COVID-19, we assessed 118 individuals 3-4 months after their initial COVID-19 diagnosis with a symptom survey, work productivity and activity index questionnaire, and 6-minute walk test. We found significant persistent symptoms and functional impairment, even in non-hospitalized patients with COVID-19.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/cid/ciab103

    View details for PubMedID 33624010

  • Peginterferon Lambda-1a for treatment of outpatients with uncomplicated COVID-19: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Nature communications Jagannathan, P. n., Andrews, J. R., Bonilla, H. n., Hedlin, H. n., Jacobson, K. B., Balasubramanian, V. n., Purington, N. n., Kamble, S. n., de Vries, C. R., Quintero, O. n., Feng, K. n., Ley, C. n., Winslow, D. n., Newberry, J. n., Edwards, K. n., Hislop, C. n., Choong, I. n., Maldonado, Y. n., Glenn, J. n., Bhatt, A. n., Blish, C. n., Wang, T. n., Khosla, C. n., Pinsky, B. A., Desai, M. n., Parsonnet, J. n., Singh, U. n. 2021; 12 (1): 1967


    Type III interferons have been touted as promising therapeutics in outpatients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We conducted a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial (NCT04331899) in 120 outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19 to determine whether a single, 180 mcg subcutaneous dose of Peginterferon Lambda-1a (Lambda) within 72 hours of diagnosis could shorten the duration of viral shedding (primary endpoint) or symptoms (secondary endpoint). In both the 60 patients receiving Lambda and 60 receiving placebo, the median time to cessation of viral shedding was 7 days (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56 to 1.19). Symptoms resolved in 8 and 9 days in Lambda and placebo, respectively, and symptom duration did not differ significantly between groups (HR 0.94; 95% CI 0.64 to 1.39). Both Lambda and placebo were well-tolerated, though liver transaminase elevations were more common in the Lambda vs. placebo arm (15/60 vs 5/60; p = 0.027). In this study, a single dose of subcutaneous Peginterferon Lambda-1a neither shortened the duration of SARS-CoV-2 viral shedding nor improved symptoms in outpatients with uncomplicated COVID-19.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-021-22177-1

    View details for PubMedID 33785743