After their 2nd or 3rd year residents take time away from their clinical training to develop further interests related to surgery. We call this “professional development” time. Traditionally, residents have used this time to take advantage of the extensive research opportunities at Stanford. Residents developed scientific expertise in plastics surgery, transplant surgery, pediatric surgery and cardiac surgery. However, other residents have used this time to pursue additional degrees or experiences in business, education, bio design, quality, and public health.