Publications

Professor of Ophthalmology and of Neurology

Publications

  • Immunoprofiling of Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy. Translational vision science & technology Mesentier-Louro, L. A., Stell, L., Yan, Y., Montague, A. A., de Jesus Perez, V., Liao, Y. J. 2021; 10 (8): 17

    Abstract

    Purpose: Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is a common acute optic neuropathy in those older than 50 years. There is no blood diagnostic test or efficient treatment for NAION. We investigated the suitability of blood inflammatory proteins as biomarkers and therapeutic targets of NAION.Methods: We conducted an exploratory, cross-sectional case-control study including 18 patients with NAION (n = 5 acute, and n = 13 chronic) and 9 controls. NAION was confirmed by clinical examination and optical coherence tomography. Subjects underwent peripheral blood collection; plasma was isolated within 2 hours and analyzed using a 76-plex array of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors.Results: In acute NAION, there was increased peripapillary retinal thickness on optical coherence tomography consistent with optic disc edema. Plasma profiling revealed dramatic changes in inflammatory proteins in NAION. Statistical analysis generated a list of 20 top-ranked molecules in NAION, with 15% overlap in acute and chronic NAION. Principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering, and Spearman correlation generally segregated controls, acute and chronic NAION, with some overlap. Longitudinal data from one patient demonstrated an evolving inflammatory pattern from acute to chronic NAION. In acute NAION, Eotaxin-3, MCP-2, TPO, and TRAIL were the top biomarker candidates. In chronic NAION, IL-1alpha and CXCL10 emerged as the strongest therapeutic targets.Conclusions: Post-NAION inflammation occurs in both acute and chronic NAION. Statistical analysis of plasma profile changes generated a list of 20 potential biomarker and therapeutic targets of NAION.Translational Relevance: We identified blood molecular targets to improve NAION diagnosis and treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.1167/tvst.10.8.17

    View details for PubMedID 34264294

  • Multimodal Imaging Features of Optic Disc Drusen. American journal of ophthalmology Yan, Y., Ludwig, C. A., Liao, Y. J. 2021

    Abstract

    PURPOSE: Identify key en face multimodal imaging features of optic disc drusen (ODD).DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study.METHODS: .SETTING: Single academic center.PATIENT OR STUDY POPULATION: 786 patients (age 10-82 years) with diagnostic codes for ODD or the term "optic disc drusen" in clinical notes extracted using natural language processing.INTERVENTION OR OBSERVATION PROCEDURES: Color fundus image, green-light and blue-light fundus autofluorescence (FAF), near-infrared reflectance (NIR), and enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT).MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Ophthalmic imaging characteristics and sensitivity of en face imaging compared with EDI-OCT.RESULTS: 38 (61 eyes) of 786 patients had high-quality EDI-OCT and en face multimodal imaging. Green-light FAF had the highest sensitivity (96.8%) and showed homogeneously hyperautofluorescence while blue-light FAF differentiated superficial and deep ODD by the heterogeneous brightness of FAF. Blue-light FAF (93.5%) and NIR (91.8%) were also sensitive and provided important features including the location, size, and depth of ODD and morphology of the optic disc and ODD-associated features such as horizontal hyperreflective lines and peripapillary hyperreflective ovoid mass-like structures (PHOMS), respectively. Color fundus imaging had the lowest sensitivity (82%). There was good inter-rater reliability for all en face imaging modalities (P < .0001 for all).CONCLUSIONS: Green-light FAF had the highest sensitivity in diagnosis of ODD, while blue-light FAF and NIR provided more information regarding the severity, location, depth, and size of ODD. In eyes that are negative on green-light FAF, EDI-OCT can be performed and provides the highest-resolution characterization of the entire optic disc to rule out ODD.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajo.2020.12.023

    View details for PubMedID 33485838

  • The Project Baseline Health Study: a step towards a broader mission to map human health NPJ DIGITAL MEDICINE Arges, K., Assimes, T., Bajaj, V., Balu, S., Bashir, M. R., Beskow, L., Blanco, R., Califf, R., Campbell, P., Carin, L., Christian, V., Cousins, S., Das, M., Dockery, M., Douglas, P. S., Dunham, A., Eckstrand, J., Fleischmann, D., Ford, E., Fraulo, E., French, J., Gambhir, S. S., Ginsburg, G. S., Green, R. C., Haddad, F., Hernandez, A., Hernandez, J., Huang, E. S., Jaffe, G., King, D., Koweek, L. H., Langlotz, C., Liao, Y. J., Mahaffey, K. W., Marcom, K., Marks, W. J., Maron, D., McCabe, R., McCall, S., McCue, R., Mega, J., Miller, D., Muhlbaier, L. H., Munshi, R., Newby, L., Pak-Harvey, E., Patrick-Lake, B., Pencina, M., Peterson, E. D., Rodriguez, F., Shore, S., Shah, S., Shipes, S., Sledge, G., Spielman, S., Spitler, R., Schaack, T., Swamy, G., Willemink, M. J., Wong, C. A. 2020; 3 (1): 84

    Abstract

    The Project Baseline Health Study (PBHS) was launched to map human health through a comprehensive understanding of both the health of an individual and how it relates to the broader population. The study will contribute to the creation of a biomedical information system that accounts for the highly complex interplay of biological, behavioral, environmental, and social systems. The PBHS is a prospective, multicenter, longitudinal cohort study that aims to enroll thousands of participants with diverse backgrounds who are representative of the entire health spectrum. Enrolled participants will be evaluated serially using clinical, molecular, imaging, sensor, self-reported, behavioral, psychological, environmental, and other health-related measurements. An initial deeply phenotyped cohort will inform the development of a large, expanded virtual cohort. The PBHS will contribute to precision health and medicine by integrating state of the art testing, longitudinal monitoring and participant engagement, and by contributing to the development of an improved platform for data sharing and analysis.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41746-020-0290-y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000538242900001

    View details for PubMedID 32550652

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7275087

  • Vision loss in optic disc drusen correlates with increased macular vessel diameter and flux and reduced peripapillary vascular density American Journal of Ophthalmology Yan, Y., Zhou, X., Chu, Z., Stell, L., Shariati, M. A., Wang, R. K., Liao, Y. J. 2020
  • Vision loss in optic disc drusen correlates with increased macular vessel diameter and flux and reduced peripapillary vascular density. American journal of ophthalmology Yan, Y. n., Zhou, X. n., Chu, Z. n., Stell, L. n., Shariati, M. A., Wang, R. K., Liao, Y. J. 2020

    Abstract

    To determine the key optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA) parameters that correlate with visual field loss in optic disc drusen (ODD).Retrospective cross-sectional study..Single academic center.17 patients with ODD (29 eyes) and 35 age-matched controls (53 eyes) INTERVENTION OR OBSERVATION PROCEDURES: Static perimetry, OCT and OCTA imaging of optic disc and macula.static perimetry, OCT, and OCTA measurements.We investigated the relationship between static perimetry and 14 OCT/OCTA measurements in patients with ODD vs. age-matched controls and found 5 key measurements that most correlated with visual field loss included: peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), macular ganglion cell complex (GCC), peripapillary vessel area density (VAD), macular vessel diameter (VD) and flux. Hierarchical clustering of these 5 measurements vs. all clinical characteristics revealed 3 distinct clusters. ODD and control eyes with no visual field loss (mean deviation (MD) > -2.0 dB) had high RNFL, GCC, and low macular VD and flux. ODD eyes with mild visual field loss (MD -2.0 to -5.0 dB) had high RNFL, GCC, and increased macular VD and flux. ODD eyes with moderate/severe visual field loss (MD < -5.0 dB) had decreased RNFL, GCC, peripapillary VAD, and increased macular VD and flux.OCT and OCTA provided objective measurements that can help predict visual field loss in ODD. Our data suggest that increased macular flow may be an early biomarker of visual field loss in ODD, while decreased peripapillary vessel density and RNFL thickness are late biomarkers of visual field loss in ODD.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajo.2020.04.019

    View details for PubMedID 32360344

  • The Project Baseline Health Study: A Step Towards a Broader Mission to Map Human Health npj Digital Medicine Gambhir, S., ..., Liao, Y. J., et al., et al 2020
  • Increased ER Stress After Experimental Ischemic Optic Neuropathy and Improved RGC and Oligodendrocyte Survival After Treatment With Chemical Chaperon. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science Kumar, V., Mesentier-Louro, L. A., Oh, A. J., Heng, K., Shariati, M. A., Huang, H., Hu, Y., Liao, Y. J. 2019; 60 (6): 1953–66

    Abstract

    Purpose: Increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is one of the earliest subcellular changes in neuro-ophthalmic diseases. In this study, we investigated the expression of key molecules in the ER stress pathways following nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION), the most common acute optic neuropathy in adults over 50, and assessed the impact of chemical chaperon 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) in vivo.Methods: We induced AION using photochemical thrombosis in adult mice and performed histologic analyses of key molecules in the ER stress pathway in the retina and optic nerve. We also assessed the effects of daily intraperitoneal injections of 4-PBA after AION.Results: In the retina at baseline, there was low proapoptotic transcriptional regulator C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and high prosurvival chaperon glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) expression in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). One day after AION, there was significantly increased CHOP and reduced GRP78 expressions in the ganglion cell layer. In the optic nerve at baseline, there was little CHOP and high GRP78 expression. One day after AION, there was significantly increased CHOP and no change in GRP78 expression. Treatment immediately after AION using daily intraperitoneal injection of chemical chaperone 4-PBA for 19 days significantly rescued Brn3A+ RGCs and Olig2+ optic nerve oligodendrocytes.Conclusions: We showed for the first time that acute AION resulted in increased ER stress and differential expression of ER stress markers CHOP and GRP78 in the retina and optic nerve. Rescue of RGCs and oligodendrocytes with 4-PBA provides support for ER stress reduction as possible treatment for AION.

    View details for PubMedID 31060051

  • Direct targeting of the mouse optic nerve for therapeutic delivery. Journal of neuroscience methods Mesentier-Louro, L. A., Dodd, R., Domizi, P., Nobuta, H., Wernig, M., Wernig, G., Liao, Y. J. 2018

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Animal models of optic nerve injury are often used to study central nervous system (CNS) degeneration and regeneration, and targeting the optic nerve is a powerful approach for axon-protective or remyelination therapy. However, the experimental delivery of drugs or cells to the optic nerve is rarely performed because injections into this structure are difficult in small animals, especially in mice.NEW METHOD: We investigated and developed methods to deliver drugs or cells to the mouse optic nerve through 3 different routes: a) intraorbital, b) through the optic foramen and c) transcranial.RESULTS: The methods targeted different parts of the mouse optic nerve: intraorbital proximal (intraorbital), intracranial middle (optic-foramen) or intracranial distal (transcranial) portion.COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: Most existing methods target the optic nerve indirectly. For instance, intravitreally delivered cells often cannot cross the inner limiting membrane to reach retinal neurons and optic nerve axons. Systemic delivery, eye drops and intraventricular injections do not always successfully target the optic nerve. Intraorbital and transcranial injections into the optic nerve or chiasm have been performed but these methods have not been well described. We approached the optic nerve with more selective and precise targeting than existing methods.CONCLUSIONS: We successfully targeted the murine optic nerve intraorbitally, through the optic foramen, and transcranially. Of all methods, the injection through the optic foramen is likely the most innovative and fastest. These methods offer additional approaches for therapeutic intervention to be used by those studying white matter damage and axonal regeneration in the CNS.

    View details for PubMedID 30389488

  • Slower saccadic reading in Parkinson's disease PLOS ONE Jehangir, N., Yu, C., Song, J., Shariati, M., Binder, S., Beyer, J., Santini, V., Poston, K., Liao, Y. 2018; 13 (1): e0191005

    Abstract

    Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease (PD) is characterized by degeneration of dopaminergic and other neurons, leading to motor and non-motor deficits. Abnormal eye movements in PD, including fixations, saccades, and convergence, are well described. However, saccadic reading, which requires serial and alternating saccades and fixations, is not well studied, despite its obvious impact on the quality of life. In this study, we assessed saccadic reading using variations of the King-Devick (KD) test, a rapid single digit number naming test, as a way to assess the ability to make serial left-to-right ocular motor movements necessary for reading. We recruited 42 treated PD patients and 80 age-matched controls and compared their reading times with a variety of measures, including age, duration of disease, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), the National Eye Institute 25-Item Visual Functioning Questionnaire 25 (VFQ-25), and Montreal Cognitive assessment (MoCA) test. The subjects performed 4 trials of reading 120 single digit numbers aloud as fast as possible without making errors. In each trial, they read 3 pages (KD1, KD2, and KD3), and each page contained 40 numbers per page in 8 lines with 5 numbers/line. We found that PD patients read about 20% slower than controls on all tests (KD1, 2, and 3 tests) (p < 0.02), and both groups read irregularly spaced numbers slower than regularly spaced numbers. Having lines between numbers to guide reading (KD1 tests) did not impact reading time in both PD and controls, but increased visual crowding as a result of decreased spacing between numbers (KD3 tests) was associated with significantly slower reading times in both PD and control groups. Our study revealed that saccadic reading is slower in PD, but controls and PD patients are both impacted by visuospatial planning challenges posed by increased visual crowding and irregularity of number spacing. Reading time did not correlate with UPDRS or MoCA scores in PD patients but significantly correlated with age, duration of disease, and VFQ-25 scores. The presence of convergence insufficiency did not significantly correlate with reading time in PD patients, although on average there was slower reading time in those with convergence insufficiency by 8 s (p = 0.2613). We propose that a simple reading task using 120 single-digit numbers can be used as a screening tool in the clinical setting to assess functional ocular motor difficulties in Parkinson's disease that can have a profound impact on quality of life.

    View details for PubMedID 29364897

  • Report on the National Eye Institute Audacious Goals Initiative: Regenerating the Optic Nerve. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science Goldberg, J. L., Guido, W., For The Agi Workshop Participants 2016; 57 (3): 1271-1275

    Abstract

    The National Eye Institute (NEI) hosted a workshop on November 19, 2014, as part of the Audacious Goals Initiative (AGI), an NEI-led effort to rapidly expand therapies for eye diseases through coordinated research funding. The central audacious goal aims to demonstrate by 2025 the restoration of usable vision in humans through the regeneration of neurons and neural connections in the eye and visual system. This workshop focused on identifying promising strategies for optic nerve regeneration. Its principal objective was to solicit input on future AGI-related funding announcements, and specifically to ask, where are we now in our scientific progress, and what progress should we reach for in the coming years? A full report was generated as a white paper posted on the NEI Web site; this report summarizes the discussion and outcomes from the meeting and serves as guidance for future funding of research that focuses on optic nerve regeneration.

    View details for DOI 10.1167/iovs.15-18500

    View details for PubMedID 26990163