Publications

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Selected Publications

Jack, Lulu, and Sam Willson Professor and Professor of Radiation Oncology (Radiation Therapy)

Publications

  • Integrating genomic features for non-invasive early lung cancer detection NATURE Chabon, J. J., Hamilton, E. G., Kurtz, D. M., Esfahani, M. S., Moding, E. J., Stehr, H., Schroers-Martin, J., Nabet, B. Y., Chen, B., Chaudhuri, A. A., Liu, C., Hui, A. B., Jin, M. C., Azad, T. D., Almanza, D., Jeon, Y., Nesselbush, M. C., Keh, L., Bonilla, R. F., Yoo, C. H., Ko, R. B., Chen, E. L., Merriott, D. J., Massion, P. P., Mansfield, A. S., Jen, J., Ren, H. Z., Lin, S. H., Costantino, C. L., Burr, R., Tibshirani, R., Gambhir, S. S., Berry, G. J., Jensen, K. C., West, R. B., Neal, J. W., Wakelee, H. A., Loo, B. W., Kunder, C. A., Leung, A. N., Lui, N. S., Berry, M. F., Shrager, J. B., Nair, V. S., Haber, D. A., Sequist, L. V., Alizadeh, A. A., Diehn, M. 2020
  • Noninvasive Early Identification of Therapeutic Benefit from Immune Checkpoint Inhibition. Cell Nabet, B. Y., Esfahani, M. S., Moding, E. J., Hamilton, E. G., Chabon, J. J., Rizvi, H. n., Steen, C. B., Chaudhuri, A. A., Liu, C. L., Hui, A. B., Almanza, D. n., Stehr, H. n., Gojenola, L. n., Bonilla, R. F., Jin, M. C., Jeon, Y. J., Tseng, D. n., Liu, C. n., Merghoub, T. n., Neal, J. W., Wakelee, H. A., Padda, S. K., Ramchandran, K. J., Das, M. n., Plodkowski, A. J., Yoo, C. n., Chen, E. L., Ko, R. B., Newman, A. M., Hellmann, M. D., Alizadeh, A. A., Diehn, M. n. 2020

    Abstract

    Although treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) can produce remarkably durable responses, most patients develop early disease progression. Furthermore, initial response assessment by conventional imaging is often unable to identify which patients will achieve durable clinical benefit (DCB). Here, we demonstrate that pre-treatment circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and peripheral CD8 T cell levels are independently associated with DCB. We further show that ctDNA dynamics after a single infusion can aid in identification of patients who will achieve DCB. Integrating these determinants, we developed and validated an entirely noninvasive multiparameter assay (DIREct-On, Durable Immunotherapy Response Estimation by immune profiling and ctDNA-On-treatment) that robustly predicts which patients will achieve DCB with higher accuracy than any individual feature. Taken together, these results demonstrate that integrated ctDNA and circulating immune cell profiling can provide accurate, noninvasive, and early forecasting of ultimate outcomes for NSCLC patients receiving ICIs.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2020.09.001

    View details for PubMedID 33007267

  • KEAP1/NFE2L2 mutations predict lung cancer radiation resistance that can be targeted by glutaminase inhibition. Cancer discovery Binkley, M. S., Jeon, Y. J., Nesselbush, M. n., Moding, E. J., Nabet, B. Y., Almanza, D. n., Kunder, C. n., Stehr, H. n., Yoo, C. H., Rhee, S. n., Xiang, M. n., Chabon, J. J., Hamilton, E. n., Kurtz, D. M., Gojenola, L. n., Owen, S. G., Ko, R. B., Shin, J. H., Maxim, P. G., Lui, N. S., Backhus, L. M., Berry, M. F., Shrager, J. B., Ramchandran, K. J., Padda, S. K., Das, M. n., Neal, J. W., Wakelee, H. A., Alizadeh, A. A., Loo, B. W., Diehn, M. n. 2020

    Abstract

    Tumor genotyping is not routinely performed in localized non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) due to lack of associations of mutations with outcome. Here, we analyze 232 consecutive patients with localized NSCLC and demonstrate that KEAP1 and NFE2L2 mutations are predictive of high rates of local recurrence (LR) after radiotherapy but not surgery. Half of LRs occurred in KEAP1/NFE2L2 mutation tumors, indicating they are major molecular drivers of clinical radioresistance. Next, we functionally evaluate KEAP1/NFE2L2 mutations in our radiotherapy cohort and demonstrate that only pathogenic mutations are associated with radioresistance. Furthermore, expression of NFE2L2 target genes does not predict LR, underscoring the utility of tumor genotyping. Finally, we show that glutaminase inhibition preferentially radiosensitizes KEAP1 mutant cells via depletion of glutathione and increased radiation-induced DNA damage. Our findings suggest that genotyping for KEAP1/NFE2L2 mutations could facilitate treatment personalization and provide a potential strategy for overcoming radioresistance conferred by these mutations.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-20-0282

    View details for PubMedID 33071215

  • Circulating tumor DNA dynamics predict benefit from consolidation immunotherapy in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer Nature Cancer Moding, E. J., Liu, Y., Nabet, B. Y., Chabon, J. J., Chaudhuri, A. A., Hui, A. B., Bonilla, R. F., Ko, R. B., Yoo, C. H., He, J., Qiao, Y., Xu, T., Heymach, J. V., Tsao, A., Liao, Z., Gomez, D. R., Das, M., Padda, S. K., Ramchandran, K. J., Neal, J. W., Wakelee, H. A., Loo, B. W., Lin, S. H., Alizadeh, A. A., Diehn, M. 2020; 1
  • Detection and Surveillance of Bladder Cancer Using Urine Tumor DNA CANCER DISCOVERY Dudley, J. C., Schroers-Martin, J., Lazzareschi, D., Shi, W., Chen, S. B., Esfahani, M. S., Trivedi, D., Chabon, J. J., Chaudhuri, A. A., Stehr, H., Liu, C., Lim, H., Costa, H. A., Nabet, B. Y., Sin, M. Y., Liao, J. C., Alizadeh, A. A., Diehn, M. 2019; 9 (4): 500–509
  • Early detection of molecular residual disease in localized lung cancer by circulating tumor DNA profiling. Cancer discovery Chaudhuri, A. A., Chabon, J. J., Lovejoy, A. F., Newman, A. M., Stehr, H. n., Azad, T. D., Khodadoust, M. S., Esfahani, M. S., Liu, C. L., Zhou, L. n., Scherer, F. n., Kurtz, D. M., Say, C. n., Carter, J. N., Merriott, D. J., Dudley, J. C., Binkley, M. S., Modlin, L. n., Padda, S. K., Gensheimer, M. F., West, R. B., Shrager, J. B., Neal, J. W., Wakelee, H. A., Loo, B. W., Alizadeh, A. A., Diehn, M. n. 2017

    Abstract

    Identifying molecular residual disease (MRD) after treatment of localized lung cancer could facilitate early intervention and personalization of adjuvant therapies. Here we apply Cancer Personalized Profiling by Deep Sequencing (CAPP-Seq) circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) analysis to 255 samples from 40 patients treated with curative intent for stage I-III lung cancer and 54 healthy adults. In 94% of evaluable patients experiencing recurrence, ctDNA was detectable in the first post-treatment blood sample, indicating reliable identification of MRD. Post-treatment ctDNA detection preceded radiographic progression in 72% of patients by a median of 5.2 months and 53% of patients harbored ctDNA mutation profiles associated with favorable responses to tyrosine kinase inhibitors or immune checkpoint blockade. Collectively, these results indicate that ctDNA MRD in lung cancer patients can be accurately detected using CAPP-Seq and may allow personalized adjuvant treatment while disease burden is lowest.

    View details for PubMedID 28899864

  • Role of KEAP1/NRF2 and TP53 Mutations in Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Development and Radiation Resistance. Cancer discovery Jeong, Y., Hoang, N. T., Lovejoy, A., Stehr, H., Newman, A. M., Gentles, A. J., Kong, W., Truong, D., Martin, S., Chaudhuri, A., Heiser, D., Zhou, L., Say, C., Carter, J. N., Hiniker, S. M., Loo, B. W., West, R. B., Beachy, P., Alizadeh, A. A., Diehn, M. 2016

    Abstract

    Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) pathogenesis remains incompletely understood, and biomarkers predicting treatment response remain lacking. Here, we describe novel murine LSCC models driven by loss of Trp53 and Keap1, both of which are frequently mutated in human LSCCs. Homozygous inactivation of Keap1 or Trp53 promoted airway basal stem cell (ABSC) self-renewal, suggesting that mutations in these genes lead to expansion of mutant stem cell clones. Deletion of Trp53 and Keap1 in ABSCs, but not more differentiated tracheal cells, produced tumors recapitulating histologic and molecular features of human LSCCs, indicating that they represent the likely cell of origin in this model. Deletion of Keap1 promoted tumor aggressiveness, metastasis, and resistance to oxidative stress and radiotherapy (RT). KEAP1/NRF2 mutation status predicted risk of local recurrence after RT in patients with non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) and could be noninvasively identified in circulating tumor DNA. Thus, KEAP1/NRF2 mutations could serve as predictive biomarkers for personalization of therapeutic strategies for NSCLCs.We developed an LSCC mouse model involving Trp53 and Keap1, which are frequently mutated in human LSCCs. In this model, ABSCs are the cell of origin of these tumors. KEAP1/NRF2 mutations increase radioresistance and predict local tumor recurrence in radiotherapy patients. Our findings are of potential clinical relevance and could lead to personalized treatment strategies for tumors with KEAP1/NRF2 mutations. Cancer Discov; 7(1); 86-101. ©2016 AACR.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1.

    View details for PubMedID 27663899

  • Circulating tumour DNA profiling reveals heterogeneity of EGFR inhibitor resistance mechanisms in lung cancer patients NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Chabon, J. J., Simmons, A. D., Lovejoy, A. F., Esfahani, M. S., Newman, A. M., Haringsma, H. J., Kurtz, D. M., Stehr, H., Scherer, F., Karlovich, C. A., Harding, T. C., Durkin, K. A., Otterson, G. A., Purcell, W. T., Camidge, D. R., Goldman, J. W., Sequist, L. V., Piotrowska, Z., Wakelee, H. A., Neal, J. W., Alizadeh, A. A., Diehn, M. 2016; 7

    Abstract

    Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) analysis facilitates studies of tumour heterogeneity. Here we employ CAPP-Seq ctDNA analysis to study resistance mechanisms in 43 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with the third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor rociletinib. We observe multiple resistance mechanisms in 46% of patients after treatment with first-line inhibitors, indicating frequent intra-patient heterogeneity. Rociletinib resistance recurrently involves MET, EGFR, PIK3CA, ERRB2, KRAS and RB1. We describe a novel EGFR L798I mutation and find that EGFR C797S, which arises in ∼33% of patients after osimertinib treatment, occurs in <3% after rociletinib. Increased MET copy number is the most frequent rociletinib resistance mechanism in this cohort and patients with multiple pre-existing mechanisms (T790M and MET) experience inferior responses. Similarly, rociletinib-resistant xenografts develop MET amplification that can be overcome with the MET inhibitor crizotinib. These results underscore the importance of tumour heterogeneity in NSCLC and the utility of ctDNA-based resistance mechanism assessment.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms11815

    View details for PubMedID 27283993

  • An ultrasensitive method for quantitating circulating tumor DNA with broad patient coverage NATURE MEDICINE Newman, A. M., Bratman, S. V., To, J., Wynne, J. F., Eclov, N. C., Modlin, L. A., Liu, C. L., Neal, J. W., Wakelee, H. A., Merritt, R. E., Shrager, J. B., Loo, B. W., Alizadeh, A. A., Diehn, M. 2014; 20 (5): 552-558

    Abstract

    Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a promising biomarker for noninvasive assessment of cancer burden, but existing ctDNA detection methods have insufficient sensitivity or patient coverage for broad clinical applicability. Here we introduce cancer personalized profiling by deep sequencing (CAPP-Seq), an economical and ultrasensitive method for quantifying ctDNA. We implemented CAPP-Seq for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with a design covering multiple classes of somatic alterations that identified mutations in >95% of tumors. We detected ctDNA in 100% of patients with stage II-IV NSCLC and in 50% of patients with stage I, with 96% specificity for mutant allele fractions down to ∼0.02%. Levels of ctDNA were highly correlated with tumor volume and distinguished between residual disease and treatment-related imaging changes, and measurement of ctDNA levels allowed for earlier response assessment than radiographic approaches. Finally, we evaluated biopsy-free tumor screening and genotyping with CAPP-Seq. We envision that CAPP-Seq could be routinely applied clinically to detect and monitor diverse malignancies, thus facilitating personalized cancer therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nm.3519

    View details for Web of Science ID 000335710700028

  • Characterization of Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Oligometastatic Incidence in an Era of Changing Treatment Paradigms. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics No, H. J., Raja, N., Von Eyben, R., Das, M., Roy, M., Myall, N., Neal, J., Wakelee, H., Chin, A., Diehn, M., Loo, B. W., Chang, D. T., Pollom, E. L., Vitzthum, L. K. 2022

    Abstract

    Due to the limitations of current staging systems and evolving definitions, there are limited data on oligometastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) epidemiology. The purpose of this study is to evaluate metastatic disease burden and the incidence of oligometastatic disease using recent clinical trial edibility criteria.A cohort of patients with metastatic NSCLC, diagnosed from 2016 to 2019, were randomly sampled from a curated tumor registry. Definitions for oligometastatic disease were obtained from relevant clinical trials. The Stanford Cancer Institute Research Database (SCIRDB) was used to identify baseline patient factors, systemic and local therapy, extent and location of metastatic lesions, and survival outcomes.Among 120 patients presenting with metastatic NSCLC, the majority had de novo metastatic disease (75%) with a median of 4 metastatic lesions involving 3 organ systems. 37.5% would have been eligible for at least one oligometastatic trial with 28.3% meeting criteria for MDACC, 20.0% for NRG-LU002, 6.7% for SINDAS and 16.7% for SABR-COMET. By adding malignant pleural effusions (MPE) and early progression as exclusionary criteria, only 54.1% of patients with ≤3 synchronous metastases were eligible for consideration of local therapy. Early progression on systemic therapy was associated with worse survival (10.0 vs. 42.4 months, p < 0.001), whereas presence of MPE was not. Of those tumors identified as oligometastatic, 44.4% received local therapy and 28.9% underwent ablative therapy to all sites. There was a trend towards greater overall survival (44.4 vs 24.9 months, p=0.055) and progression free survival (8.0 vs. 5.4 months, p=0.06) in patients meeting eligibility for at least one oligometastatic trial.Around 48% of patients with metastatic NSCLC had ≤3 metastases at presentation and 28% met clinical trial criteria for oligometastatic disease. Future research is needed to better define the oligometastatic state and identify patients most likely to benefit from local therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2022.04.050

    View details for PubMedID 35654305

  • Early Assessment of Chemotherapy Response in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer with Circulating Tumor DNA. Cancers Yaung, S. J., Woestmann, C., Ju, C., Ma, X. M., Gattam, S., Zhou, Y., Xi, L., Pal, S., Balasubramanyam, A., Tikoo, N., Heussel, C. P., Thomas, M., Kriegsmann, M., Meister, M., Schneider, M. A., Herth, F. J., Wehnl, B., Diehn, M., Alizadeh, A. A., Palma, J. F., Muley, T. 2022; 14 (10)

    Abstract

    Monitoring treatment efficacy early during therapy could enable a change in treatment to improve patient outcomes. We report an early assessment of response to treatment in advanced NSCLC using a plasma-only strategy to measure changes in ctDNA levels after one cycle of chemotherapy. Plasma samples were collected from 92 patients with Stage IIIB-IV NSCLC treated with first-line chemo- or chemoradiation therapies in an observational, prospective study. Retrospective ctDNA analysis was performed using next-generation sequencing with a targeted 198-kb panel designed for lung cancer surveillance and monitoring. We assessed whether changes in ctDNA levels after one or two cycles of treatment were associated with clinical outcomes. Subjects with ≤50% decrease in ctDNA level after one cycle of chemotherapy had a lower 6-month progression-free survival rate (33% vs. 58%, HR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.2, log-rank p = 0.009) and a lower 12-month overall survival rate (25% vs. 70%, HR 4.3, 95% CI 2.2 to 9.7, log-rank p < 0.001). Subjects with ≤50% decrease in ctDNA level after two cycles of chemotherapy also had shorter survival. Using non-invasive liquid biopsies to measure early changes in ctDNA levels in response to chemotherapy may help identify non-responders before standard-of-care imaging in advanced NSCLC.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/cancers14102479

    View details for PubMedID 35626082

  • Inferring gene expression from cell-free DNA fragmentation profiles. Nature biotechnology Esfahani, M. S., Hamilton, E. G., Mehrmohamadi, M., Nabet, B. Y., Alig, S. K., King, D. A., Steen, C. B., Macaulay, C. W., Schultz, A., Nesselbush, M. C., Soo, J., Schroers-Martin, J. G., Chen, B., Binkley, M. S., Stehr, H., Chabon, J. J., Sworder, B. J., Hui, A. B., Frank, M. J., Moding, E. J., Liu, C. L., Newman, A. M., Isbell, J. M., Rudin, C. M., Li, B. T., Kurtz, D. M., Diehn, M., Alizadeh, A. A. 2022

    Abstract

    Profiling of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in the bloodstream shows promise for noninvasive cancer detection. Chromatin fragmentation features have previously been explored to infer gene expression profiles from cell-free DNA (cfDNA), but current fragmentomic methods require high concentrations of tumor-derived DNA and provide limited resolution. Here we describe promoter fragmentation entropy as an epigenomic cfDNA feature that predicts RNA expression levels at individual genes. We developed 'epigenetic expression inference from cell-free DNA-sequencing' (EPIC-seq), a method that uses targeted sequencing of promoters of genes of interest. Profiling 329 blood samples from 201 patients with cancer and 87 healthy adults, we demonstrate classification of subtypes of lung carcinoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Applying EPIC-seq to serial blood samples from patients treated with PD-(L)1 immune-checkpoint inhibitors, we show that gene expression profiles inferred by EPIC-seq are correlated with clinical response. Our results indicate that EPIC-seq could enable noninvasive, high-throughput tissue-of-origin characterization with diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic potential.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41587-022-01222-4

    View details for PubMedID 35361996

  • Detection of Recurrence After Thoracic Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy Using FDG-PET-CT. Clinical lung cancer Sodji, Q. H., Harris, J. P., Quon, A., Modlin, L. A., Lau, B., Jiang, A., Trakul, N., Maxim, P. G., Diehn, M., Loo, B. W., Hiniker, S. M. 2022

    Abstract

    INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND: Differentiating local recurrence (LR) from post-treatment changes following stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for thoracic tumors is challenging. We sought to evaluate the performance of FDG-PET-CT in distinguishing recurrence from post-radiation changes in patients with stage I-II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with SABR.MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patients with stage I-II NSCLC treated with SABR and subsequently followed with surveillance FDG-PET-CT scans from 2004 to 2014. The radiology reports were coded as 0 or 1 if minimally or substantially concerning for LR, respectively, and correlated with outcome. Prognostic factors for false-positive FDG-PET-CT were assessed using logistic regression models.RESULTS: We identified 145 patients meeting inclusion criteria for the retrospective analysis. Amongst the 39 (26.9%) patients with FDG-PET-CT scans concerning for LR 3 to 24 months after treatment, 14 were confirmed to have LR. Thus, the positive predictive value (PPV) of FDG-PET-CT in identifying LR was 36% (14/39). Factors associated with a false-positive scan included concerning FDG-PET-CT at the earliest post-treatment time point (3 months) (odds ratio 0.67, P= .04) and older age (odds ratio 2.3, P= .02).CONCLUSION: Our analysis indicates that the PPV of a concerning FDG-PET-CT after SABR for early-stage NSCLC is relatively low, especially at early post-treatment timepoints, but accuracy is improving over time with institutional experience.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cllc.2022.01.006

    View details for PubMedID 35246393

  • Predictive Radiation Oncology - A New NCI-DOE Scientific Space and Community. Radiation research Buchsbaum, J. C., Jaffray, D. A., Ba, D., Borkon, L. L., Chalk, C., Chung, C., Coleman, M. A., Coleman, C. N., Diehn, M., Droegemeier, K. K., Enderling, H., Espey, M. G., Greenspan, E. J., Hartshorn, C. M., Hoang, T., Hsiao, H. T., Keppel, C., Moore, N. W., Prior, F., Stahlberg, E. A., Tourassi, G., Willcox, K. E. 1800

    Abstract

    With a widely attended virtual kickoff event on January 29, 2021, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the Department of Energy (DOE) launched a series of 4 interactive, interdisciplinary workshops-and a final concluding "World Cafe" on March 29, 2021-focused on advancing computational approaches for predictive oncology in the clinical and research domains of radiation oncology. These events reflect 3,870 human hours of virtual engagement with representation from 8 DOE national laboratories and the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNL), 4 research institutes, 5 cancer centers, 17 medical schools and teaching hospitals, 5 companies, 5 federal agencies, 3 research centers, and 27 universities. Here we summarize the workshops by first describing the background for the workshops. Participants identified twelve key questions-and collaborative parallel ideas-as the focus of work going forward to advance the field. These were then used to define short-term and longer-term "Blue Sky" goals. In addition, the group determined key success factors for predictive oncology in the context of radiation oncology, if not the future of all of medicine. These are: cross-discipline collaboration, targeted talent development, development of mechanistic mathematical and computational models and tools, and access to high-quality multiscale data that bridges mechanisms to phenotype. The workshop participants reported feeling energized and highly motivated to pursue next steps together to address the unmet needs in radiation oncology specifically and in cancer research generally and that NCI and DOE project goals align at the convergence of radiation therapy and advanced computing.

    View details for DOI 10.1667/RADE-22-00012.1

    View details for PubMedID 35090025

  • Acute and Late Esophageal Toxicity Following Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy to Thoracic Tumors near or Abutting the Esophagus. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics Sodji, Q. H., Ko, R., von Eyben, R., Owen, S. G., Capaldi, D. P., Bush, K., Binkley, M. S., Alrowais, F., Pickthorn, B., Maxim, P. G., Gensheimer, M. F., Diehn, M., Loo, B. W. 1800

    Abstract

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the incidence of acute and late esophageal toxicity in patients with thoracic tumors near or abutting the esophagus treated with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR).METHODS AND MATERIALS: Among patients with thoracic tumors treated with SABR, we identified those with tumors near or abutting the esophagus. Using the linear-quadratic model with an alpha/SS ratio of 10, we determined the correlation between dosimetric parameters and esophageal toxicity graded using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 5.0.RESULTS: Out of 2200 patients treated with thoracic SABR, 767 patients were analyzable for esophageal dosimetry. We identified 55 patients with tumors near the esophagus (52 evaluable for esophagitis grade), 28 with PTV overlapping the esophagus. Median follow-up and overall survival were 16 and 23 months respectively. Thirteen patients (25%) developed temporary grade 2 acute esophageal toxicity, 11 (85%) of whom had PTV overlapping the esophagus. Symptoms resolved within 1-3 months in 12 patients, and 6 months in all patients. No grade 3-5 toxicity was observed. Only 3 patients (6%) developed late or persistent grade 2 dysphagia or dyspepsia of uncertain relationship to SABR. Cumulative incidence of acute esophagitis was 15% and 25% at 14 days and 60 days respectively. Acute toxicity correlated on univariate analysis with esophageal Dmax, D1cc, D2cc, Dmax/Dprescription and whether the PTV was overlapping the esophagus. Esophageal Dmax (BED10) < 62 Gy, D1cc (BED10) < 48 Gy, D2cc (BED10) < 43 Gy, and Dmax/Dprescription < 85% was associated with <20% risk of grade 2 acute esophagitis. Only 2 local recurrences occurred.CONCLUSIONS: Although 25% of patients with tumors near the esophagus developed acute esophagitis (39% of those with PTV overlapping the esophagus), these toxicities were all grade 2 and all temporary. This suggests the safety and efficacy of thoracic SABR for tumors near or abutting the esophagus when treating with high conformity and sharp dose gradients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2021.12.008

    View details for PubMedID 34942312

  • Impact of Facility Treatment Volume on Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR) Outcomes in Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics Marar, M., Bryant, A. K., Nalawade, V., Das, M., Jr, B. W., Diehn, M., Chin, A. L., Murphy, J. D., Vitzthum, L. 2021; 111 (3S): e447

    Abstract

    PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE(S): Prior research suggests that radiation oncologist provider experience may influence outcomes for radiation treatment modalities requiring greater technical expertise for given disease sites. We investigated whether institution treatment volume (TV) for SABR technique impacted survival outcomes for patients with NSCLC.MATERIALS/METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Veteran's Affairs Informatics and Computing Infrastructure (VINCI) database to identify patients who underwent treatment for NSCLC between 2012 and 2017 at Veteran's Health Administration Medical Centers (VHAMCs). Patients were included in the cohort if they had tumor (T) stage 1 or 2 disease, node negative (N0) disease, and underwent SABR radiation treatment based on associated Current Procedural Terminology codes. We conducted univariate and multivariate analyses for overall survival (OS) and cause-specific survival (CSS) using Cox regression models accounting for age, sex, race, histology, T stage, tobacco history, ECOG status, and VHAMC facility TV. TV was calculated as the total number of SABR treatments performed per facility over the study period and was categorized into high and low volume groups based on a median TV cutoff.RESULTS: The observational cohort included N = 433 patients with early-stage NSCLC who underwent treatment with SABR across 25 VHAMC facilities. Most patients (83.1%) had T stage 1 disease, and nearly equal proportions had SCC (31.2%) and adenocarcinoma (32.5%) histologies, with the remaining having clinical diagnoses of NSCLC. Median facility TV was 29 SABR treatments (interquartile range 19-33). Median follow up was 657 days. Estimated 2-year overall and cause-specific survival rates were 78.4% (95% CI: 73.9% - 82.1%) and 87.0% (95% CI: 83.2% - 90.0%), respectively. On univariate analysis, high versus low facility TV was not significantly associated with OS (hazard ratio (HR) 1.08, 95% CI: 0.74-1.58) or CSS (HR 1.06, 95% CI: 0.65 - 1.73). Similarly, facility volume was not associated with OS or CSS on multivariate analysis. In a sensitivity analysis, facility volume was not associated with survival outcomes when treated as a continuous variable. Covariates associated with decreased OS included male sex (HR 4.5, P < 0.05), age over 65 (HR 1.77, P < 0.05), ECOG status 2 or greater (HR 1.94, P < 0.05), SCC histology (HR 1.66, P < 0.05), and T stage 2 disease (HR 1.68, P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: In this observational cohort of patients treated at VHAMCs, facility TV was not associated with survival outcomes for early-stage NSCLC radiation treatment using SABR technique. Research is ongoing to account for factors including baseline pulmonary function, comorbidities, and variations in institutional treatment patterns such as propensity for treatment with surgery versus radiation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2021.07.1262

    View details for PubMedID 34701476

  • Impact of Facility Treatment Volume on Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR) Outcomes in Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Marar, M., Bryant, A. K., Nalawade, V., Das, M., Loo, B. W., Diehn, M., Chin, A. L., Murphy, J. D., Vitzthum, L. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2021: E447
  • Deep Learning Based Identification and Segmentation of Lung Tumors on Computed Tomography Images Kashyap, M., Panjwani, N., Hasan, M. A., Huang, C., Bush, K., Dong, P., Zaky, S. S., Chin, A. L., Vitzthum, L., Loo, B. W., Diehn, M., Xing, L., Gensheimer, M. F. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2021: E92-E93
  • A Phase II Trial of Individualized Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy for Lung Tumors (iSABR) Gensheimer, M. F., Gee, H. E., Von Eyben, R., Shirato, H., Taguchi, H., Wong, S., Brown, E., Nguyen, N., Liang, R., Maxim, P. G., Wakelee, H. A., Neal, J. W., Das, M., Loo, B. W., Diehn, M. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2021: S89-S90
  • Patterns of Care in Patients With Isolated Nodal Recurrence After Definitive Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Devine, M., Merriott, D. J., Say, C., Yoo, C., Yi, E., Lau, B., Ko, R. B., Shaheen, S., Neal, J. W., Wakelee, H. A., Das, M., Loo, B. W., Diehn, M., Chin, A. L., Vitzthum, L. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2021: E435