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Selected Publications

Jack, Lulu, and Sam Willson Professor and Professor of Radiation Oncology (Radiation Therapy)


  • Integrating genomic features for non-invasive early lung cancer detection NATURE Chabon, J. J., Hamilton, E. G., Kurtz, D. M., Esfahani, M. S., Moding, E. J., Stehr, H., Schroers-Martin, J., Nabet, B. Y., Chen, B., Chaudhuri, A. A., Liu, C., Hui, A. B., Jin, M. C., Azad, T. D., Almanza, D., Jeon, Y., Nesselbush, M. C., Keh, L., Bonilla, R. F., Yoo, C. H., Ko, R. B., Chen, E. L., Merriott, D. J., Massion, P. P., Mansfield, A. S., Jen, J., Ren, H. Z., Lin, S. H., Costantino, C. L., Burr, R., Tibshirani, R., Gambhir, S. S., Berry, G. J., Jensen, K. C., West, R. B., Neal, J. W., Wakelee, H. A., Loo, B. W., Kunder, C. A., Leung, A. N., Lui, N. S., Berry, M. F., Shrager, J. B., Nair, V. S., Haber, D. A., Sequist, L. V., Alizadeh, A. A., Diehn, M. 2020
  • Noninvasive Early Identification of Therapeutic Benefit from Immune Checkpoint Inhibition. Cell Nabet, B. Y., Esfahani, M. S., Moding, E. J., Hamilton, E. G., Chabon, J. J., Rizvi, H. n., Steen, C. B., Chaudhuri, A. A., Liu, C. L., Hui, A. B., Almanza, D. n., Stehr, H. n., Gojenola, L. n., Bonilla, R. F., Jin, M. C., Jeon, Y. J., Tseng, D. n., Liu, C. n., Merghoub, T. n., Neal, J. W., Wakelee, H. A., Padda, S. K., Ramchandran, K. J., Das, M. n., Plodkowski, A. J., Yoo, C. n., Chen, E. L., Ko, R. B., Newman, A. M., Hellmann, M. D., Alizadeh, A. A., Diehn, M. n. 2020


    Although treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) can produce remarkably durable responses, most patients develop early disease progression. Furthermore, initial response assessment by conventional imaging is often unable to identify which patients will achieve durable clinical benefit (DCB). Here, we demonstrate that pre-treatment circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and peripheral CD8 T cell levels are independently associated with DCB. We further show that ctDNA dynamics after a single infusion can aid in identification of patients who will achieve DCB. Integrating these determinants, we developed and validated an entirely noninvasive multiparameter assay (DIREct-On, Durable Immunotherapy Response Estimation by immune profiling and ctDNA-On-treatment) that robustly predicts which patients will achieve DCB with higher accuracy than any individual feature. Taken together, these results demonstrate that integrated ctDNA and circulating immune cell profiling can provide accurate, noninvasive, and early forecasting of ultimate outcomes for NSCLC patients receiving ICIs.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2020.09.001

    View details for PubMedID 33007267

  • KEAP1/NFE2L2 mutations predict lung cancer radiation resistance that can be targeted by glutaminase inhibition. Cancer discovery Binkley, M. S., Jeon, Y. J., Nesselbush, M. n., Moding, E. J., Nabet, B. Y., Almanza, D. n., Kunder, C. n., Stehr, H. n., Yoo, C. H., Rhee, S. n., Xiang, M. n., Chabon, J. J., Hamilton, E. n., Kurtz, D. M., Gojenola, L. n., Owen, S. G., Ko, R. B., Shin, J. H., Maxim, P. G., Lui, N. S., Backhus, L. M., Berry, M. F., Shrager, J. B., Ramchandran, K. J., Padda, S. K., Das, M. n., Neal, J. W., Wakelee, H. A., Alizadeh, A. A., Loo, B. W., Diehn, M. n. 2020


    Tumor genotyping is not routinely performed in localized non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) due to lack of associations of mutations with outcome. Here, we analyze 232 consecutive patients with localized NSCLC and demonstrate that KEAP1 and NFE2L2 mutations are predictive of high rates of local recurrence (LR) after radiotherapy but not surgery. Half of LRs occurred in KEAP1/NFE2L2 mutation tumors, indicating they are major molecular drivers of clinical radioresistance. Next, we functionally evaluate KEAP1/NFE2L2 mutations in our radiotherapy cohort and demonstrate that only pathogenic mutations are associated with radioresistance. Furthermore, expression of NFE2L2 target genes does not predict LR, underscoring the utility of tumor genotyping. Finally, we show that glutaminase inhibition preferentially radiosensitizes KEAP1 mutant cells via depletion of glutathione and increased radiation-induced DNA damage. Our findings suggest that genotyping for KEAP1/NFE2L2 mutations could facilitate treatment personalization and provide a potential strategy for overcoming radioresistance conferred by these mutations.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-20-0282

    View details for PubMedID 33071215

  • Circulating tumor DNA dynamics predict benefit from consolidation immunotherapy in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer Nature Cancer Moding, E. J., Liu, Y., Nabet, B. Y., Chabon, J. J., Chaudhuri, A. A., Hui, A. B., Bonilla, R. F., Ko, R. B., Yoo, C. H., He, J., Qiao, Y., Xu, T., Heymach, J. V., Tsao, A., Liao, Z., Gomez, D. R., Das, M., Padda, S. K., Ramchandran, K. J., Neal, J. W., Wakelee, H. A., Loo, B. W., Lin, S. H., Alizadeh, A. A., Diehn, M. 2020; 1
  • Detection and Surveillance of Bladder Cancer Using Urine Tumor DNA CANCER DISCOVERY Dudley, J. C., Schroers-Martin, J., Lazzareschi, D., Shi, W., Chen, S. B., Esfahani, M. S., Trivedi, D., Chabon, J. J., Chaudhuri, A. A., Stehr, H., Liu, C., Lim, H., Costa, H. A., Nabet, B. Y., Sin, M. Y., Liao, J. C., Alizadeh, A. A., Diehn, M. 2019; 9 (4): 500–509
  • Early detection of molecular residual disease in localized lung cancer by circulating tumor DNA profiling. Cancer discovery Chaudhuri, A. A., Chabon, J. J., Lovejoy, A. F., Newman, A. M., Stehr, H. n., Azad, T. D., Khodadoust, M. S., Esfahani, M. S., Liu, C. L., Zhou, L. n., Scherer, F. n., Kurtz, D. M., Say, C. n., Carter, J. N., Merriott, D. J., Dudley, J. C., Binkley, M. S., Modlin, L. n., Padda, S. K., Gensheimer, M. F., West, R. B., Shrager, J. B., Neal, J. W., Wakelee, H. A., Loo, B. W., Alizadeh, A. A., Diehn, M. n. 2017


    Identifying molecular residual disease (MRD) after treatment of localized lung cancer could facilitate early intervention and personalization of adjuvant therapies. Here we apply Cancer Personalized Profiling by Deep Sequencing (CAPP-Seq) circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) analysis to 255 samples from 40 patients treated with curative intent for stage I-III lung cancer and 54 healthy adults. In 94% of evaluable patients experiencing recurrence, ctDNA was detectable in the first post-treatment blood sample, indicating reliable identification of MRD. Post-treatment ctDNA detection preceded radiographic progression in 72% of patients by a median of 5.2 months and 53% of patients harbored ctDNA mutation profiles associated with favorable responses to tyrosine kinase inhibitors or immune checkpoint blockade. Collectively, these results indicate that ctDNA MRD in lung cancer patients can be accurately detected using CAPP-Seq and may allow personalized adjuvant treatment while disease burden is lowest.

    View details for PubMedID 28899864

  • Role of KEAP1/NRF2 and TP53 Mutations in Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Development and Radiation Resistance. Cancer discovery Jeong, Y., Hoang, N. T., Lovejoy, A., Stehr, H., Newman, A. M., Gentles, A. J., Kong, W., Truong, D., Martin, S., Chaudhuri, A., Heiser, D., Zhou, L., Say, C., Carter, J. N., Hiniker, S. M., Loo, B. W., West, R. B., Beachy, P., Alizadeh, A. A., Diehn, M. 2016


    Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) pathogenesis remains incompletely understood, and biomarkers predicting treatment response remain lacking. Here, we describe novel murine LSCC models driven by loss of Trp53 and Keap1, both of which are frequently mutated in human LSCCs. Homozygous inactivation of Keap1 or Trp53 promoted airway basal stem cell (ABSC) self-renewal, suggesting that mutations in these genes lead to expansion of mutant stem cell clones. Deletion of Trp53 and Keap1 in ABSCs, but not more differentiated tracheal cells, produced tumors recapitulating histologic and molecular features of human LSCCs, indicating that they represent the likely cell of origin in this model. Deletion of Keap1 promoted tumor aggressiveness, metastasis, and resistance to oxidative stress and radiotherapy (RT). KEAP1/NRF2 mutation status predicted risk of local recurrence after RT in patients with non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) and could be noninvasively identified in circulating tumor DNA. Thus, KEAP1/NRF2 mutations could serve as predictive biomarkers for personalization of therapeutic strategies for NSCLCs.We developed an LSCC mouse model involving Trp53 and Keap1, which are frequently mutated in human LSCCs. In this model, ABSCs are the cell of origin of these tumors. KEAP1/NRF2 mutations increase radioresistance and predict local tumor recurrence in radiotherapy patients. Our findings are of potential clinical relevance and could lead to personalized treatment strategies for tumors with KEAP1/NRF2 mutations. Cancer Discov; 7(1); 86-101. ©2016 AACR.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1.

    View details for PubMedID 27663899

  • Circulating tumour DNA profiling reveals heterogeneity of EGFR inhibitor resistance mechanisms in lung cancer patients NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Chabon, J. J., Simmons, A. D., Lovejoy, A. F., Esfahani, M. S., Newman, A. M., Haringsma, H. J., Kurtz, D. M., Stehr, H., Scherer, F., Karlovich, C. A., Harding, T. C., Durkin, K. A., Otterson, G. A., Purcell, W. T., Camidge, D. R., Goldman, J. W., Sequist, L. V., Piotrowska, Z., Wakelee, H. A., Neal, J. W., Alizadeh, A. A., Diehn, M. 2016; 7


    Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) analysis facilitates studies of tumour heterogeneity. Here we employ CAPP-Seq ctDNA analysis to study resistance mechanisms in 43 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with the third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor rociletinib. We observe multiple resistance mechanisms in 46% of patients after treatment with first-line inhibitors, indicating frequent intra-patient heterogeneity. Rociletinib resistance recurrently involves MET, EGFR, PIK3CA, ERRB2, KRAS and RB1. We describe a novel EGFR L798I mutation and find that EGFR C797S, which arises in ∼33% of patients after osimertinib treatment, occurs in <3% after rociletinib. Increased MET copy number is the most frequent rociletinib resistance mechanism in this cohort and patients with multiple pre-existing mechanisms (T790M and MET) experience inferior responses. Similarly, rociletinib-resistant xenografts develop MET amplification that can be overcome with the MET inhibitor crizotinib. These results underscore the importance of tumour heterogeneity in NSCLC and the utility of ctDNA-based resistance mechanism assessment.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms11815

    View details for PubMedID 27283993

  • An ultrasensitive method for quantitating circulating tumor DNA with broad patient coverage NATURE MEDICINE Newman, A. M., Bratman, S. V., To, J., Wynne, J. F., Eclov, N. C., Modlin, L. A., Liu, C. L., Neal, J. W., Wakelee, H. A., Merritt, R. E., Shrager, J. B., Loo, B. W., Alizadeh, A. A., Diehn, M. 2014; 20 (5): 552-558


    Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a promising biomarker for noninvasive assessment of cancer burden, but existing ctDNA detection methods have insufficient sensitivity or patient coverage for broad clinical applicability. Here we introduce cancer personalized profiling by deep sequencing (CAPP-Seq), an economical and ultrasensitive method for quantifying ctDNA. We implemented CAPP-Seq for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with a design covering multiple classes of somatic alterations that identified mutations in >95% of tumors. We detected ctDNA in 100% of patients with stage II-IV NSCLC and in 50% of patients with stage I, with 96% specificity for mutant allele fractions down to ∼0.02%. Levels of ctDNA were highly correlated with tumor volume and distinguished between residual disease and treatment-related imaging changes, and measurement of ctDNA levels allowed for earlier response assessment than radiographic approaches. Finally, we evaluated biopsy-free tumor screening and genotyping with CAPP-Seq. We envision that CAPP-Seq could be routinely applied clinically to detect and monitor diverse malignancies, thus facilitating personalized cancer therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nm.3519

    View details for Web of Science ID 000335710700028

  • NFE2L2 mutations enhance radioresistance in head and neck cancer by modulating intratumoral myeloid cells. Cancer research Guan, L., Nambiar, D. K., Cao, H., Viswanathan, V., Kwok, S., Hui, A. B., Hou, Y., Hildebrand, R., von Eyben, R., Holmes, B. J., Zhao, J., Kong, C. S., Wamsley, N., Zhang, W., Major, M. B., Seol, S. W., Sunwoo, J. B., Hayes, D. N., Diehn, M., Le, Q. T. 2023


    Radiotherapy is one of the primary treatments of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), which has a high risk of locoregional failure (LRF). Presently, there is no reliable predictive biomarker of radioresistance in HNSCC. Here, we found that mutations in NFE2L2, which encodes Nrf2, are associated with a significantly higher rate of LRF in patients with oral cavity cancer treated with surgery and adjuvant (chemo)radiotherapy but not in those treated with surgery alone. Somatic mutation of NFE2L2 led to Nrf2 activation and radioresistance in HNSCC cells. Tumors harboring mutant Nrf2E79Q were substantially more radioresistant than tumors with wild-type Nrf2 in immunocompetent mice, while the difference was diminished in immunocompromised mice. Nrf2E79Q enhanced radioresistance through increased recruitment of intratumoral polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cells (PMN-MDSCs) and reduction of M1-polarized macrophages. Treatment with the glutaminase inhibitor CB-839 overcame the radioresistance induced by Nrf2E79Q or Nrf2E79K. Radiotherapy increased expression of PMN-MDSC-attracting chemokines, including CXCL1, CXLC3 and CSF3, in Nrf2E79Q-expressing tumors via the TLR4, which could be reversed by CB-839. This study provides insights into the impact of NFE2L2 mutations on radioresistance and suggests that CB-839 can increase radiosensitivity by switching intratumoral myeloid cells to an anti-tumor phenotype, supporting clinical testing of CB-839 with radiation in HNSCC with NFE2L2 mutations.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-22-1903

    View details for PubMedID 36652552

  • STK11 Inactivation Predicts Rapid Recurrence in Inoperable Early-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer. JCO precision oncology Katipally, R. R., Spurr, L. F., Gutiontov, S. I., Turchan, W. T., Connell, P., Juloori, A., Malik, R., Binkley, M. S., Jiang, A. L., Rouhani, S. J., Chervin, C. S., Wanjari, P., Segal, J. P., Ng, V., Loo, B. W., Gomez, D. R., Bestvina, C. M., Vokes, E. E., Ferguson, M. K., Donington, J. S., Diehn, M., Pitroda, S. P. 2023; 7: e2200273


    Molecular factors predicting relapse in early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (ES-NSCLC) are poorly understood, especially in inoperable patients receiving radiotherapy (RT). In this study, we compared the genomic profiles of inoperable and operable ES-NSCLC.This retrospective study included 53 patients with nonsquamous ES-NSCLC (stage I-II) treated at a single institution (University of Chicago) with surgery (ie, operable; n = 30) or RT (ie, inoperable; n = 23) who underwent tumor genomic profiling. A second cohort of ES-NSCLC treated with RT (Stanford, n = 39) was included to power clinical analyses. Prognostic gene alterations were identified and correlated with clinical variables. The primary clinical end point was the correlation of prognostic genes with the cumulative incidence of relapse, disease-free survival, and overall survival (OS) in a pooled RT cohort from the two institutions (N = 62).Although the surgery cohort exhibited lower rates of relapse, the RT cohort was highly enriched for somatic STK11 mutations (43% v 6.7%). Receiving supplemental oxygen (odds ratio [OR] = 5.5), 20+ pack-years of tobacco smoking (OR = 6.1), and Black race (OR = 4.3) were associated with increased frequency of STK11 mutations. In the pooled RT cohort (N = 62), STK11 mutation was strongly associated with inferior oncologic outcomes: 2-year incidence of relapse was 62% versus 20% and 2-year OS was 52% versus 85%, remaining independently prognostic on multivariable analyses (relapse: subdistribution hazard ratio = 4.0, P = .0041; disease-free survival: hazard ratio, 6.8, P = .0002; OS: hazard ratio, 6.0, P = .022). STK11 mutations were predominantly associated with distant failure, rather than local.In this cohort of ES-NSCLC, STK11 inactivation was associated with poor oncologic outcomes after RT and demonstrated a novel association with clinical hypoxia, which may underlie its correlation with medical inoperability. Further validation in larger cohorts and investigation of effective adjuvant systemic therapies may be warranted.

    View details for DOI 10.1200/PO.22.00273

    View details for PubMedID 36603171

  • Determinants of resistance to engineered T cell therapies targeting CD19 in large B cell lymphomas. Cancer cell Sworder, B. J., Kurtz, D. M., Alig, S. K., Frank, M. J., Shukla, N., Garofalo, A., Macaulay, C. W., Shahrokh Esfahani, M., Olsen, M. N., Hamilton, J., Hosoya, H., Hamilton, M., Spiegel, J. Y., Baird, J. H., Sugio, T., Carleton, M., Craig, A. F., Younes, S. F., Sahaf, B., Sheybani, N. D., Schroers-Martin, J. G., Liu, C. L., Oak, J. S., Jin, M. C., Beygi, S., Hüttmann, A., Hanoun, C., Dührsen, U., Westin, J. R., Khodadoust, M. S., Natkunam, Y., Majzner, R. G., Mackall, C. L., Diehn, M., Miklos, D. B., Alizadeh, A. A. 2022


    Most relapsed/refractory large B cell lymphoma (r/rLBCL) patients receiving anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR19) T cells relapse. To characterize determinants of resistance, we profiled over 700 longitudinal specimens from two independent cohorts (n = 65 and n = 73) of r/rLBCL patients treated with axicabtagene ciloleucel. A method for simultaneous profiling of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), cell-free CAR19 (cfCAR19) retroviral fragments, and cell-free T cell receptor rearrangements (cfTCR) enabled integration of tumor and both engineered and non-engineered T cell effector-mediated factors for assessing treatment failure and predicting outcomes. Alterations in multiple classes of genes are associated with resistance, including B cell identity (PAX5 and IRF8), immune checkpoints (CD274), and those affecting the microenvironment (TMEM30A). Somatic tumor alterations affect CAR19 therapy at multiple levels, including CAR19 T cell expansion, persistence, and tumor microenvironment. Further, CAR19 T cells play a reciprocal role in shaping tumor genotype and phenotype. We envision these findings will facilitate improved chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells and personalized therapeutic approaches.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ccell.2022.12.005

    View details for PubMedID 36584673

  • Circulating Tumor DNA Profiling for Detection, Risk Stratification, and Classification of Brain Lymphomas. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology Mutter, J. A., Alig, S. K., Esfahani, M. S., Lauer, E. M., Mitschke, J., Kurtz, D. M., Kühn, J., Bleul, S., Olsen, M., Liu, C. L., Jin, M. C., Macaulay, C. W., Neidert, N., Volk, T., Eisenblaetter, M., Rauer, S., Heiland, D. H., Finke, J., Duyster, J., Wehrle, J., Prinz, M., Illerhaus, G., Reinacher, P. C., Schorb, E., Diehn, M., Alizadeh, A. A., Scherer, F. 2022: JCO2200826


    Clinical outcomes of patients with CNS lymphomas (CNSLs) are remarkably heterogeneous, yet identification of patients at high risk for treatment failure is challenging. Furthermore, CNSL diagnosis often remains unconfirmed because of contraindications for invasive stereotactic biopsies. Therefore, improved biomarkers are needed to better stratify patients into risk groups, predict treatment response, and noninvasively identify CNSL.We explored the value of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) for early outcome prediction, measurable residual disease monitoring, and surgery-free CNSL identification by applying ultrasensitive targeted next-generation sequencing to a total of 306 tumor, plasma, and CSF specimens from 136 patients with brain cancers, including 92 patients with CNSL.Before therapy, ctDNA was detectable in 78% of plasma and 100% of CSF samples. Patients with positive ctDNA in pretreatment plasma had significantly shorter progression-free survival (PFS, P < .0001, log-rank test) and overall survival (OS, P = .0001, log-rank test). In multivariate analyses including established clinical and radiographic risk factors, pretreatment plasma ctDNA concentrations were independently prognostic of clinical outcomes (PFS HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0 to 1.9; P = .03; OS HR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.2; P = .006). Moreover, measurable residual disease detection by plasma ctDNA monitoring during treatment identified patients with particularly poor prognosis following curative-intent immunochemotherapy (PFS, P = .0002; OS, P = .004, log-rank test). Finally, we developed a proof-of-principle machine learning approach for biopsy-free CNSL identification from ctDNA, showing sensitivities of 59% (CSF) and 25% (plasma) with high positive predictive value.We demonstrate robust and ultrasensitive detection of ctDNA at various disease milestones in CNSL. Our findings highlight the role of ctDNA as a noninvasive biomarker and its potential value for personalized risk stratification and treatment guidance in patients with CNSL.

    View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.22.00826

    View details for PubMedID 36542815

  • Highly aneuploid non-small cell lung cancer shows enhanced responsiveness to concurrent radiation and immune checkpoint blockade. Nature cancer Spurr, L. F., Martinez, C. A., Kang, W., Chen, M., Zha, Y., Hseu, R., Gutiontov, S. I., Turchan, W. T., Lynch, C. M., Pointer, K. B., Chang, P., Murgu, S., Husain, A. N., Cody, B., Vokes, E. E., Bestvina, C. M., Patel, J. D., Diehn, M., Gajewski, T. F., Weichselbaum, R. R., Chmura, S. J., Pitroda, S. P. 2022


    Over 500 clinical trials are investigating combination radiotherapy and immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) as cancer treatments; however, the majority of trials have found no positive interaction. Here we perform a comprehensive molecular analysis of a randomized phase I clinical trial of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with concurrent or sequential ablative radiotherapy and ICB. We show that concurrent treatment is superior to sequential treatment in augmenting local and distant tumor responses and in improving overall survival in a subset of patients with immunologically cold, highly aneuploid tumors, but not in those with less aneuploid tumors. In addition, radiotherapy alone decreases intratumoral cytotoxic T cell and adaptive immune signatures, whereas radiotherapy and ICB upregulates key immune pathways. Our findings challenge the prevailing paradigm that local ablative radiotherapy beneficially stimulates the immune response. We propose the use of tumor aneuploidy as a biomarker and therapeutic target in personalizing treatment approaches for patients with NSCLC treated with radiotherapy and ICB.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s43018-022-00467-x

    View details for PubMedID 36443406

    View details for PubMedCentralID 6085329

  • Radiotherapy in combination with CD47 blockade elicits a macrophage-mediated abscopal effect. Nature cancer Nishiga, Y., Drainas, A. P., Baron, M., Bhattacharya, D., Barkal, A. A., Ahrari, Y., Mancusi, R., Ross, J. B., Takahashi, N., Thomas, A., Diehn, M., Weissman, I. L., Graves, E. E., Sage, J. 2022


    Radiation therapy is a mainstay of cancer treatment but does not always lead to complete tumor regression. Here we combine radiotherapy with blockade of the 'don't-eat-me' cell-surface molecule CD47 in small cell lung cancer (SCLC), a highly metastatic form of lung cancer. CD47 blockade potently enhances the local antitumor effects of radiotherapy in preclinical models of SCLC. Notably, CD47 blockade also stimulates off-target 'abscopal' effects inhibiting non-irradiated SCLC tumors in mice receiving radiation. These abscopal effects are independent of T cells but require macrophages that migrate into non-irradiated tumor sites in response to inflammatory signals produced by radiation and are locally activated by CD47 blockade to phagocytose cancer cells. Similar abscopal antitumor effects were observed in other cancer models treated with radiation and CD47 blockade. The systemic activation of antitumor macrophages following radiotherapy and CD47 blockade may be particularly important in patients with cancer who suffer from metastatic disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s43018-022-00456-0

    View details for PubMedID 36411318

  • Induction EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors prior to definitive chemoradiotherapy in unresectable stage III EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer treatment and research communications Aredo, J. V., Wakelee, H. A., Hui, A. B., Padda, S. K., Joshi, N. D., Guo, H. H., Chaudhuri, A., Diehn, M., Loo, B. W., Neal, J. W. 2022; 33: 100659


    INTRODUCTION: Increasing evidence suggests that consolidation durvalumab confers limited benefits for patients with stage III EGFR-mutated NSCLC. Induction or maintenance EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) added to concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) may optimize definitive treatment, but there are limited data supporting an induction TKI strategy.METHODS: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of induction EGFR TKIs administered before concurrent CRT in a retrospective series of patients with unresectable locally advanced EGFR-mutated NSCLC. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) analysis was performed on a patient subset using CAPP-seq and correlated with outcomes.RESULTS: Of six patients, three received erlotinib and three osimertinib as induction therapy before CRT. Induction TKIs were administered for a median of 2.5 months. The objective response rate after induction TKI was 83%. One patient had a complete response to induction erlotinib and continued erlotinib for 4 years until local progression, which was treated with CRT. Two patients completed maintenance erlotinib after CRT, and another received consolidation durvalumab. After a median follow-up of 20.5 months, only one patient developed disease recurrence, with rising ctDNA coinciding with recurrence. ctDNA remained undetectable in patients without recurrence, or low-level in a patient receiving maintenance erlotinib. Adverse events were mild and expected, and none developed pneumonitis.CONCLUSION: Induction EGFR TKI before CRT may achieve high disease control rates with promising signs of durability in patients with locally advanced EGFR-mutated NSCLC. ctDNA analysis after CRT can correlate well with clinical outcomes. Prospective studies are needed to define the role of induction EGFR TKIs in this setting.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ctarc.2022.100659

    View details for PubMedID 36427429

  • A Review of Concurrent Chemo/Radiation, Immunotherapy, Radiation Planning, and Biomarkers for Locally Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer and Their Role in the Development of ECOG-ACRIN EA5181. Clinical lung cancer Varlotto, J. M., Sun, Z., Ky, B., Upshaw, J., Fitzgerald, T. J., Diehn, M., Lovly, C., Belani, C., Oettel, K., Masters, G., Harkenrider, M., Ross, H., Ramalingam, S., Pennell, N. A. 2022; 23 (7): 547-560


    ECOG-ACRIN EA5181 is a current prospective, randomized trial that is investigating whether the addition of concomitant durvalumab to standard chemo/radiation followed by 1 year of consolidative durvalumab results in an overall survival benefit over standard chemo/radiation alone followed by 1 year of consolidative durvalumab in patients with locally advanced, unresectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Because multiple phase I/II trials have shown the relative safety of adding immunotherapy to chemo/radiation and due to the known synergism between chemotherapy and immunotherapy, it is hoped that concomitant durvalumab can reduce the relatively high incidence of local failure (38%-46%) as seen in recent prospective, randomized trials of standard chemo/radiation in this patient population. We will review the history of radiation for LA-NSCLC and discuss the role of induction, concurrent and consolidative chemotherapy as well as the concerns for late cardiac and pulmonary toxicities associated with treatment. Furthermore, we will review the potential role of next generation sequencing, PD-L1, ctDNA and tumor mutation burden and their possible impact on this trial.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cllc.2022.06.005

    View details for PubMedID 35882620

  • Early Outcomes and Toxicity with Concurrent Chemotherapy and Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Hui, C., Marquez, C., Lau, B., Von Eyben, R., Das, M., Myall, N., Roy, M., Chin, A., Diehn, M., Loo, B., Vitzthum, L. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2022: S44
  • Chest Wall Toxicity after Individualized Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy for Lung Tumors Lau, B., Wu, Y. F., Fu, J., Cui, S., Pham, D., Gee, H., Skinner, L., Shirato, H., Taguchi, H., Chin, A., Gensheimer, M., Diehn, M., Loo, B., Vitzthum, L. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2022: S36-S37
  • Dosimetric Predictors of Local Control after Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR) for Lung Tumors: A Secondary Analysis of a Phase II Prospective Trial of Individualized SABR (iSABR) Wu, Y., Lau, B., Fu, J., Skinner, L., Gensheimer, M., Gee, H., Diehn, M., Loo, B., Chin, A., Vitzthum, L. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2022: S16