Professor of Neurology, of Pediatrics (Genetics) and, by Courtesy, of Pathology at the Stanford University Medical Center


  • Choroid plexus mis-splicing and altered cerebrospinal fluid composition in myotonic dystrophy type 1. Brain : a journal of neurology Nutter, C. A., Kidd, B. M., Carter, H. A., Hamel, J. I., Mackie, P. M., Kumbkarni, N., Davenport, M. L., Tuyn, D. M., Gopinath, A., Creigh, P. D., Sznajder, Ł. J., Wang, E. T., Ranum, L. P., Khoshbouei, H., Day, J. W., Sampson, J. B., Prokop, S., Swanson, M. S. 2023


    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 is a dominantly inherited multisystemic disease caused by CTG tandem repeat expansions in the DMPK 3' untranslated region. These expanded repeats are transcribed and produce toxic CUG RNAs that sequester and inhibit activities of the MBNL family of developmental RNA processing factors. Although myotonic dystrophy is classified as a muscular dystrophy, the brain is also severely affected by an unusual cohort of symptoms, including hypersomnia, executive dysfunction, as well as early onsets of tau/MAPT pathology and cerebral atrophy. To address the molecular and cellular events that lead to these pathological outcomes, we recently generated a mouse Dmpk CTG expansion knockin model and identified choroid plexus epithelial cells as particularly affected by the expression of toxic CUG expansion RNAs. To determine if toxic CUG RNAs perturb choroid plexus functions, alternative splicing analysis was performed on lateral and hindbrain choroid plexi from Dmpk CTG knockin mice. Choroid plexus transcriptome-wide changes were evaluated in Mbnl2 knockout mice, a developmental-onset model of myotonic dystrophy brain dysfunction. To determine if transcriptome changes also occurred in the human disease, we obtained post-mortem choroid plexus for RNA-seq from donors without neurologically unaffected (two females, three males; ages 50-70) and myotonic dystrophy type 1 donors (one female, three males; ages 50-70). To test that choroid plexus transcriptome alterations resulted in altered CSF composition, we obtained CSF via lumbar puncture from patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (five females, five males; ages 35-55) and non-myotonic dystrophy patients (three females, four males; ages 26-51) and Western blot and osmolarity analyses were used to test CSF alterations predicted by choroid plexus transcriptome analysis. We determined that CUG RNA induced toxicity was more robust in the lateral choroid plexus of Dmpk CTG knockin mice due to comparatively higher Dmpk and lower Mbnl RNA levels. Impaired transitions to adult splicing patterns during choroid plexus development were identified in Mbnl2 knockout mice, including mis-splicing previously found in Dmpk CTG knockin mice. Whole transcriptome analysis of myotonic dystrophy type 1 choroid plexus revealed disease-associated RNA expression and mis-splicing events. Based on these RNA changes, predicted alterations in ion homeostasis, secretory output, and CSF composition were confirmed by analysis of myotonic dystrophy type 1 CSF. Our results implicate choroid plexus spliceopathy and concomitant alterations in CSF homeostasis as an unappreciated contributor to myotonic dystrophy type 1 CNS pathogenesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/brain/awad148

    View details for PubMedID 37143315

  • Correction to: Two‑year efficacy and safety of risdiplam in patients with type 2 or non‑ambulant type 3 spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Journal of neurology Oskoui, M., Day, J. W., Deconinck, N., Mazzone, E. S., Nascimento, A., Saito, K., Vuillerot, C., Baranello, G., Goemans, N., Kirschner, J., Kostera-Pruszczyk, A., Servais, L., Papp, G., Gorni, K., Kletzl, H., Martin, C., McIver, T., Scalco, R. S., Staunton, H., Yeung, W. Y., Fontoura, P., Mercuri, E., SUNFISH Working Group 2023

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00415-023-11658-6

    View details for PubMedID 37071150

  • Generation of two induced pluripotent stem cell lines from spinal muscular atrophy type 1 patients carrying no functional copies of SMN1 gene. Stem cell research Zeng, W., Kong, X., Alamana, C., Liu, Y., Guzman, J., Pang, P. D., Day, J. W., Wu, J. C. 2023; 69: 103095


    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a severe neurodegenerative muscular disease caused by the homozygous loss of survival of motor neuron 1 (SMN1) genes. SMA patients exhibit marked skeletal muscle (SKM) loss, eventually leading to death. Here we generated two iPSC lines from two SMA type I patients with homozygous SMN1 mutations and validated the pluripotency and the ability to differentiate into three germ layers. The iPSC lines can be applied to generate skeletal muscles to model muscle atrophy of SMA that persists after treatment of motor neurons and will serve as a complementary platform for drug screening in vitro.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.scr.2023.103095

    View details for PubMedID 37087898

  • Efficacy and Safety of Avalglucosidase Alfa in Patients With Late-Onset Pompe Disease After 97 Weeks: A Phase 3 Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA neurology Kishnani, P. S., Diaz-Manera, J., Toscano, A., Clemens, P. R., Ladha, S., Berger, K. I., Kushlaf, H., Straub, V., Carvalho, G., Mozaffar, T., Roberts, M., Attarian, S., Chien, Y. H., Choi, Y. C., Day, J. W., Erdem-Ozdamar, S., Illarioshkin, S., Goker-Alpan, O., Kostera-Pruszczyk, A., van der Ploeg, A. T., An Haack, K., Huynh-Ba, O., Tammireddy, S., Thibault, N., Zhou, T., Dimachkie, M. M., Schoser, B. 2023


    In the previously reported Comparative Enzyme Replacement Trial With neoGAA Versus rhGAA (COMET) trial, avalglucosidase alfa treatment for 49 weeks showed clinically meaningful improvements in upright forced vital capacity (FVC) percent predicted and 6-minute walk test (6MWT) compared with alglucosidase alfa.To report avalglucosidase alfa treatment outcomes during the COMET trial extension.This phase 3 double-blind randomized clinical trial with crossover in the extension period enrolled patients 3 years and older with previously untreated late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD) between November 2, 2016, and February 10, 2021, with primary analysis after 49 weeks. Patients were treated at 55 referral centers in 20 countries. Efficacy outcomes were assessed at 97 weeks and safety outcomes to last follow-up, with data cutoff at February 10, 2021. Data were analyzed from May to June 2021.Random assignment (1:1) to receive 20 mg/kg of avalglucosidase alfa or alglucosidase alfa by intravenous infusion every other week for 49 weeks; thereafter, all patients received 20 mg/kg of avalglucosidase alfa every other week.The primary outcome was the least squares (LS) mean change from baseline in FVC percent predicted. Secondary outcomes included the LS mean change from baseline in 6MWT, muscle strength, motor function, quality of life, and disease biomarkers. Safety and tolerability were also assessed.Of 100 participants from the double-blind treatment period, 95 entered the extension period. Of these, 51 (54%) were men, and the mean (range) age was 48.3 (10-79) years. At the start of this study, mean upright FVC percent predicted was similar between treatment arms, and 6MWT distance was greater in the avalglucosidase alfa arm. From baseline to week 97, LS mean (SE) FVC percent predicted increased by 2.65 (1.05) for those who continued avalglucosidase alfa and 0.36 (1.12) for those who switched to avalglucosidase alfa. The LS mean (SE) 6MWT distance increased by 18.60 (12.01) m and 4.56 (12.44) m, respectively. For participants who switched to avalglucosidase alfa, FVC percent predicted remained stable (LS mean [SE] change from week 49 to 97, 0.09 [0.88]) and 6MWT distance improved (LS mean [SE] change from week 49 to 97, 5.33 [10.81] m). Potentially treatment-related adverse events were reported in 29 patients (56.9%) who continued avalglucosidase alfa and in 25 patients (56.8%) who switched.In this randomized clinical trial extension, maintenance of positive clinical outcomes was demonstrated for patients continuing avalglucosidase alfa treatment and, to a lesser extent, patients who switched from alglucosidase alfa. No new safety concerns were Identifier: NCT02782741.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamaneurol.2023.0552

    View details for PubMedID 37036722

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10087094

  • Intrathecal Onasemnogene Abeparvovec for Sitting, Nonambulatory Patients with Spinal Muscular Atrophy: Phase I Ascending-Dose Study (STRONG). Journal of neuromuscular diseases Finkel, R. S., Darras, B. T., Mendell, J. R., Day, J. W., Kuntz, N. L., Connolly, A. M., Zaidman, C., Crawford, T. O., Butterfield, R. J., Shieh, P. B., Tennekoon, G., Brandsema, J. F., Iannaccone, S. T., Shoffner, J., Kavanagh, S., Macek, T. A., Tauscher-Wisniewski, S. 2023


    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disorder arising from biallelic non-functional survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) genes with variable copies of partially functional SMN2 gene. Intrathecal onasemnogene abeparvovec administration, at fixed, low doses, may enable treatment of heavier patients ineligible for weight-based intravenous dosing.STRONG (NCT03381729) assessed the safety/tolerability and efficacy of intrathecal onasemnogene abeparvovec for sitting, nonambulatory SMA patients.Sitting, nonambulatory SMA patients (biallelic SMN1 loss, three SMN2 copies, aged 6-<60 months) received a single dose of intrathecal onasemnogene abeparvovec. Patients were enrolled sequentially into one of three (low, medium, and high) dose cohorts and stratified into two groups by age at dosing: younger (6-<24 months) and older (24-<60 months). Primary endpoints included safety/tolerability, independent standing ≥3 seconds (younger group), and change in Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale Expanded (HFMSE) from baseline (older group) compared with historic controls.Thirty-two patients were enrolled and completed the study (medium dose, n = 25). All patients had one or more treatment-emergent adverse events, with one serious and related to treatment (transaminase elevations). No deaths were reported. One of 13 patients (7.7%) in the younger group treated with the medium dose achieved independent standing. At Month 12 for the older group receiving the medium dose, change from baseline in HFMSE was significantly improved compared with the SMA historic control population (P <  0.01).Intrathecal onasemnogene abeparvovec was safe and well-tolerated. Older patients treated with the medium dose demonstrated increases in HFMSE score greater than commonly observed in natural history.

    View details for DOI 10.3233/JND-221560

    View details for PubMedID 36911944

  • Expanding the muscle imaging spectrum in dysferlinopathy: description of an outlier population from the classical MRI pattern. Neuromuscular disorders : NMD Llansó, L., Moore, U., Bolano-Diaz, C., James, M., Blamire, A. M., Carlier, P. G., Rufibach, L., Gordish-Dressman, H., Boyle, G., Hilsden, H., Day, J. W., Jones, K. J., Bharucha-Goebel, D. X., Salort-Campana, E., Pestronk, A., Walter, M. C., Paradas, C., Stojkovic, T., Mori-Yoshimura, M., Bravver, E., Pegoraro, E., Mendell, J. R., Straub, V., Díaz-Manera, J. 2023; 33 (4): 349-357


    Dysferlinopathy is a muscle disease characterized by a variable clinical presentation and is caused by mutations in the DYSF gene. The Jain Clinical Outcome Study for Dysferlinopathy (COS) followed the largest cohort of patients (n=187) with genetically confirmed dysferlinopathy throughout a three-year natural history study, in which the patients underwent muscle function tests and muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We previously described the pattern of muscle pathology in this population and established a series of imaging criteria for diagnosis. In this paper, we describe the muscle imaging and clinical features of a subgroup of COS participants whose muscle imaging results did not completely meet the diagnostic criteria. We reviewed 184 T1-weighted (T1w) muscle MRI scans obtained at the baseline visit of the COS study, of which 106 were pelvic and lower limb only and 78 were whole-body scans. We identified 116 of the 184 patients (63%) who did not meet at least one of the established imaging criteria. The highest number found of unmet criteria was four per patient. We identified 24 patients (13%) who did not meet three or more of the nine established criteria and considered them as "outliers". The most common unmet criterion (27.3% of cases) was the adductor magnus being equally or more affected than the adductor longus. We compared the genetic, demographic, clinical and muscle function data of the outlier patients with those who met the established criteria and observed that the outlier patients had an age of disease onset that was significantly older than the whole group (29.3 vs 20.5 years, p=0.0001). This study expands the phenotypic muscle imaging spectrum of patients with dysferlinopathy and can help to guide the diagnostic process in patients with limb girdle weakness of unknown origin.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.nmd.2023.02.007

    View details for PubMedID 36972667

  • Antisense oligonucleotide targeting DMPK in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1: a multicentre, randomised, dose-escalation, placebo-controlled, phase 1/2a trial. The Lancet. Neurology Thornton, C. A., Moxley, R. T., Eichinger, K., Heatwole, C., Mignon, L., Arnold, W. D., Ashizawa, T., Day, J. W., Dent, G., Tanner, M. K., Duong, T., Greene, E. P., Herbelin, L., Johnson, N. E., King, W., Kissel, J. T., Leung, D. G., Lott, D. J., Norris, D. A., Pucillo, E. M., Schell, W., Statland, J. M., Stinson, N., Subramony, S. H., Xia, S., Bishop, K. M., Bennett, C. F. 2023; 22 (3): 218-228


    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 results from an RNA gain-of-function mutation, in which DM1 protein kinase (DMPK) transcripts carrying expanded trinucleotide repeats exert deleterious effects. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) provide a promising approach to treatment of myotonic dystrophy type 1 because they reduce toxic RNA levels. We aimed to investigate the safety of baliforsen (ISIS 598769), an ASO targeting DMPK mRNA.In this dose-escalation phase 1/2a trial, adults aged 20-55 years with myotonic dystrophy type 1 were enrolled at seven tertiary referral centres in the USA and randomly assigned via an interactive web or phone response system to subcutaneous injections of baliforsen 100 mg, 200 mg, or 300 mg, or placebo (6:2 randomisation at each dose level), or to baliforsen 400 mg or 600 mg, or placebo (10:2 randomisation at each dose level), on days 1, 3, 5, 8, 15, 22, 29, and 36. Sponsor personnel directly involved with the trial, participants, and all study personnel were masked to treatment assignments. The primary outcome measure was safety in all participants who received at least one dose of study drug up to day 134. This trial is registered with (NCT02312011), and is complete.Between Dec 12, 2014, and Feb 22, 2016, 49 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned to baliforsen 100 mg (n=7, one patient not dosed), 200 mg (n=6), 300 mg (n=6), 400 mg (n=10), 600 mg (n=10), or placebo (n=10). The safety population comprised 48 participants who received at least one dose of study drug. Treatment-emergent adverse events were reported for 36 (95%) of 38 participants assigned to baliforsen and nine (90%) of ten participants assigned to placebo. Aside from injection-site reactions, common treatment-emergent adverse events were headache (baliforsen: ten [26%] of 38 participants; placebo: four [40%] of ten participants), contusion (baliforsen: seven [18%] of 38; placebo: one [10%] of ten), and nausea (baliforsen: six [16%] of 38; placebo: two [20%] of ten). Most adverse events (baliforsen: 425 [86%] of 494; placebo: 62 [85%] of 73) were mild in severity. One participant (baliforsen 600 mg) developed transient thrombocytopenia considered potentially treatment related. Baliforsen concentrations in skeletal muscle increased with dose.Baliforsen was generally well tolerated. However, skeletal muscle drug concentrations were below levels predicted to achieve substantial target reduction. These results support the further investigation of ASOs as a therapeutic approach for myotonic dystrophy type 1, but suggest improved drug delivery to muscle is needed.Ionis Pharmaceuticals, Biogen.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S1474-4422(23)00001-7

    View details for PubMedID 36804094

  • 2-Year Change in Revised Hammersmith Scale Scores in a Large Cohort of Untreated Paediatric Type 2 and 3 SMA Participants. Journal of clinical medicine Stimpson, G., Ramsey, D., Wolfe, A., Mayhew, A., Scoto, M., Baranello, G., Muni Lofra, R., Main, M., Milev, E., Coratti, G., Pane, M., Sansone, V., D'Amico, A., Bertini, E., Messina, S., Bruno, C., Albamonte, E., Mazzone, E. S., Montes, J., Glanzman, A. M., Zolkipli-Cunningham, Z., Pasternak, A., Duong, T., Dunaway Young, S., Civitello, M., Marini-Bettolo, C., Day, J. W., Darras, B. T., De Vivo, D. C., Finkel, R. S., Mercuri, E., Muntoni, F. 2023; 12 (5)


    The Revised Hammersmith Scale (RHS) is a 36-item ordinal scale developed using clinical expertise and sound psychometrics to investigate motor function in participants with Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA). In this study, we investigate median change in the RHS score up to two years in paediatric SMA 2 and 3 participants and contextualise it to the Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale-Expanded (HFMSE). These change scores were considered by SMA type, motor function, and baseline RHS score. We consider a new transitional group, spanning crawlers, standers, and walkers-with-assistance, and analyse that alongside non-sitters, sitters, and walkers. The transitional group exhibit the most definitive change score trend, with an average 1-year decline of 3 points. In the weakest patients, we are most able to detect positive change in the RHS in the under-5 age group, whereas in the stronger patients, we are most able to detect decline in the RHS in the 8-13 age group. The RHS has a reduced floor effect compared to the HFMSE, although we show that the RHS should be used in conjunction with the RULM for participants scoring less than 20 points on the RHS. The timed items in the RHS have high between-participant variability, so participants with the same RHS total can be differentiated by their timed test items.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/jcm12051920

    View details for PubMedID 36902710

  • Validation of the Parent-Proxy Pediatric Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Quality of Life Outcome Measure. Journal of the peripheral nervous system : JPNS Wu, T. T., Finkel, R. S., Siskind, C. E., Feely, S. M., Burns, J., Reilly, M. M., Muntoni, F., Estilow, T., Shy, M. E., Ramchandren, S., Childhood CMT Study Group of the Inherited Neuropathy Consortium, Bacon, C. J., Shy, R. R., Cornett, K., Laura, M., Milev, E., Day, J. W., Lloyd, T., Sumner, C. J., Herrmann, D. N., Kirk, C., Yum, S. W. 2023


    OBJECTIVE: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) reduces health-related quality of life (QOL) in children. We have previously developed and validated the English and Italian versions of the pediatric CMT-specific QOL outcome measure (pCMT-QOL) for children aged 8-18. There is currently no parent-proxy CMT QOL outcome measure for use in clinical trials, which could provide complementary information in these children and adolescents. This study describes the validation studies conducted to develop the parent-proxy version of the pCMT-QOL outcome measure for children aged 8-18years old.METHODS: Development and validation of the parent-proxy version of the pCMT-QOL outcome measure for children aged 8-18years old was iterative, involving identifying relevant domains, item pool generation, prospective pilot testing and clinical assessments, structured focus-group interviews, and psychometric testing, conducted on parents of children with CMT seen at participating sites from the USA, United Kingdom, and Australia.RESULTS: We utilized previously described methods to develop a working parent-proxy version of the pCMT-QOL measure. From 2010-2016, the parent-proxy pCMT-QOL working version was administered to 358 parents of children with CMT aged 8-18, seen at the participating study sites of the Inherited Neuropathies Consortium. The resulting data underwent rigorous psychometric analysis, including factor analysis, test-retest reliability, internal consistency, convergent validity, IRT analysis, and longitudinal analysis, to develop the final parent-proxy version of the pCMT-QOL outcome measure for children aged 8-18years old.INTERPRETATION: The parent-proxy version of the pCMT-QOL outcome measure is a reliable, valid, and sensitive proxy measure of health-related QOL for children aged 8-18 with CMT.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/jns.12538

    View details for PubMedID 36748295

  • Assessing Bulbar Function in Spinal Muscular Atrophy Using Patient-Reported Outcomes. Journal of neuromuscular diseases Young, S. D., Pasternak, A., Duong, T., McGrattan, K. E., Stranberg, S., Maczek, E., Dias, C., Tang, W., Parker, D., Levine, A., Rohan, A., Wolford, C., Martens, W., McDermott, M. P., Darras, B. T., Day, J. W. 2023


    Novel Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) treatments have demonstrated improvements on motor measures that are clearly distinct from the natural history of progressive decline. Comparable measures are needed to monitor bulbar function, which is affected in severe SMA.To assess bulbar function with patient-reported outcome measures (PROs) and determine their relationships with clinical characteristics.We recruited 47 non-ambulatory participants (mean (SD) age = 29.8 (13.7) years, range = 10.3-73.2) with SMA. PROs including Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and Eating Assessment Tool-10 (EAT-10) were collected alongside clinical characteristics and standardized motor assessments. Associations were assessed using Spearman correlation coefficients and group comparisons were performed using Wilcoxon rank sum tests.A majority of the 47 participants were SMA type 2 (70.2%), non-sitters (78.7%), 3 copies of SMN2 (77.5%), and using respiratory support (66.0%). A majority (94%) reported voice issues primarily in 8/30 VHI questions. Problems included: difficulty understanding me in a noisy room (87.2%); difficult for people to hear me (74.5%); and people ask me to repeat when speaking face-to-face (72.3%). A majority (85.1%) reported swallowing issues primarily in 3/10 EAT-10 questions: swallowing pills (68.1%); food sticks to my throat (66.0%); and swallowing solids (61.7%). The two PROs were moderately associated (rs = 0.66).Weaker individuals with SMA experience bulbar problems including difficulties with voice and swallowing. Further refinement and assessment of functional bulbar scales will help determine their relevance and responsiveness to changes in SMA. Additional study is needed to quantify bulbar changes caused by SMA and their response to disease-modifying treatments.

    View details for DOI 10.3233/JND-221573

    View details for PubMedID 36776075

  • Two-year efficacy and safety of risdiplam in patients with type 2 or non-ambulant type 3 spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Journal of neurology Oskoui, M., Day, J. W., Deconinck, N., Mazzone, E. S., Nascimento, A., Saito, K., Vuillerot, C., Baranello, G., Goemans, N., Kirschner, J., Kostera-Pruszczyk, A., Servais, L., Papp, G., Gorni, K., Kletzl, H., Martin, C., McIver, T., Scalco, R. S., Staunton, H., Yeung, W. Y., Fontoura, P., Mercuri, E., SUNFISH Working Group 2023


    Risdiplam is an oral, survival of motor neuron2 (SMN2) pre-mRNA splicing modifier approved for the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). SUNFISH (NCT02908685) Part 2, a Phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, investigated the efficacy and safety of risdiplam in type 2 and non‑ambulant type 3 SMA. The primary endpoint was met: a significantly greater change from baseline in 32-item Motor Function Measure (MFM32) total score was observed with risdiplam compared with placebo at month 12. After 12months, all participants received risdiplam while preserving initial treatment blinding. We report 24-month efficacy and safety results in this population. Month 24 exploratory endpoints included change from baseline in MFM32 and safety. MFM‑derived results were compared with an external comparator. At month 24 of risdiplam treatment, 32% of patients demonstrated improvement (a change of≥3) from baseline in MFM32 total score; 58% showed stabilization (a change of≥0). Compared with an external comparator, a treatment difference of 3.12 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.67-4.57) in favor of risdiplam was observed in MFM-derived scores. Overall, gains in motor function at month 12 were maintained or improved upon at month 24. In patients initially receiving placebo, MFM32 remained stable compared with baseline (0.31 [95% CI - 0.65 to 1.28]) after 12months of risdiplam; 16% of patients improved their score and 59% exhibited stabilization. The safety profile after 24months was consistent with that observed after 12months. Risdiplam over 24months resulted in further improvement or stabilization in motor function, confirming the benefit of longer-term treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00415-023-11560-1

    View details for PubMedID 36735057

  • Myostatin and follistatin as monitoring and prognostic biomarkers in dysferlinopathy. Neuromuscular disorders : NMD Moore, U., Fernandez-Simon, E., Schiava, M., Cox, D., Gordish-Dressman, H., James, M. K., Mayhew, A., Wilson, I., Guglieri, M., Rufibach, L., Blamire, A., Carlier, P. G., Mori-Yoshimura, M., Day, J. W., Jones, K. J., Bharucha-Goebel, D. X., Salort-Campana, E., Pestronk, A., Walter, M. C., Paradas, C., Stojkovic, T., Bravver, E., Pegoraro, E., Mendell, J. R., Bushby, K., Diaz-Manera, J., Straub, V., Jain COS Consortium 2023; 33 (2): 199-207


    Myostatin is a myokine which acts upon skeletal muscle to inhibit growth and regeneration. Myostatin is endogenously antagonised by follistatin. This study assessed serum myostatin and follistatin concentrations as monitoring or prognostic biomarkers in dysferlinopathy, an autosomal recessively inherited muscular dystrophy. Myostatin was quantified twice with a three-year interval in 76 patients with dysferlinopathy and 38 controls. Follistatin was quantified in 62 of these patients at the same timepoints, and in 31 controls. Correlations with motor function, muscle fat fraction and contractile cross-sectional area were performed. A regression model was used to account for confounding variables. Baseline myostatin, but not follistatin, correlated with baseline function and MRI measures. However, in individual patients, three-year change in myostatin did not correlate with functional or MRI changes. Linear modelling demonstrated that function, serum creatine kinase and C-reactive protein, but not age, were independently related to myostatin concentration. Baseline myostatin concentration predicted loss of ambulation but not rate of change of functional or MRI measures, even when relative inhibition with follistatin was considered. With adjustment for extra-muscular causes of variation, myostatin could form a surrogate measure of functional ability or muscle mass, however myostatin inhibition does not form a promising treatment target in dysferlinopathy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.nmd.2023.01.001

    View details for PubMedID 36689846

  • Advances and limitations for the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy. BMC pediatrics Day, J. W., Howell, K., Place, A., Long, K., Rossello, J., Kertesz, N., Nomikos, G. 2022; 22 (1): 632


    Spinal muscular atrophy (5q-SMA; SMA), a genetic neuromuscular condition affecting spinal motor neurons, is caused by defects in both copies of the SMN1 gene that produces survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. The highly homologous SMN2 gene primarily expresses a rapidly degraded isoform of SMN protein that causes anterior horn cell degeneration, progressive motor neuron loss, skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness. Severe cases result in limited mobility and ventilatory insufficiency. Untreated SMA is the leading genetic cause of death in young children. Recently, three therapeutics that increase SMN protein levels in patients with SMA have provided incremental improvements in motor function and developmental milestones and prevented the worsening of SMA symptoms. While the therapeutic approaches with Spinraza®, Zolgensma®, and Evrysdi® have a clinically significant impact, they are not curative. For many patients, there remains a significant disease burden. A potential combination therapy under development for SMA targets myostatin, a negative regulator of muscle mass and strength. Myostatin inhibition in animal models increases muscle mass and function. Apitegromab is an investigational, fully human, monoclonal antibody that specifically binds to proforms of myostatin, promyostatin and latent myostatin, thereby inhibiting myostatin activation. A recently completed phase 2 trial demonstrated the potential clinical benefit of apitegromab by improving or stabilizing motor function in patients with Type 2 and Type 3 SMA and providing positive proof-of-concept for myostatin inhibition as a target for managing SMA. The primary goal of this manuscript is to orient physicians to the evolving landscape of SMA treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12887-022-03671-x

    View details for PubMedID 36329412

  • Safety and efficacy of risdiplam in patients with type 1 spinal muscular atrophy (FIREFISH part 2): secondary analyses from an open-label trial. The Lancet. Neurology Masson, R., Mazurkiewicz-Beldzinska, M., Rose, K., Servais, L., Xiong, H., Zanoteli, E., Baranello, G., Bruno, C., Day, J. W., Deconinck, N., Klein, A., Mercuri, E., Vlodavets, D., Wang, Y., Dodman, A., El-Khairi, M., Gorni, K., Jaber, B., Kletzl, H., Gaki, E., Fontoura, P., Darras, B. T., FIREFISH Study Group, Volpe, J. J., Posner, J., Kellner, U., Quinlivan, R., Gerber, M., Khwaja, O., Scalco, R. S., Seabrook, T., Koch, A., Balikova, I., Joniau, I., Accou, G., Tahon, V., Wittevrongel, S., De Vos, E., de Holanda Mendonca, R., Matsui, C. J., Fornazieri Darcie, A. L., Machado, C., Kiyoko Oyamada, M., Martini, J., Polido, G., Rodrigues Iannicelli, J., Caires de Oliveira Achili Ferreira, J., Hu, C., Zhu, X., Qian, C., Shen, L., Li, H., Shi, Y., Zhou, S., Xiao, Y., Zhou, Z., Wang, S., Sang, T., Wei, C., Dong, H., Cao, Y., Wen, J., Li, W., Qin, L., Barisic, N., Celovec, I., Galiot Delic, M., Ivkic, P. K., Vukojevic, N., Kern, I., Najdanovic, B., Skugor, M., Tomas, J., Boespflug-Tanguy, O., De Lucia, S., Seferian, A., Barreau, E., Mnafek, N., Peche, H., Grange, A., Trang Nguyen, D., Milascevic, D., Tachibana, S., Pagliano, E., Bianchi Marzoli, S., Santarsiero, D., Garcia Sierra, M., Tremolada, G., Arnoldi, M. T., Vigano, M., Dosi, C., Zanin, R., Schembri, V., Brolatti, N., Rao, G., Tassara, E., Morando, S., Tacchetti, P., Pedemonte, M., Priolo, E., Sposetti, L., Comi, G. P., Govoni, A., Osnaghi, S. G., Minorini, V., Abbati, F., Fassini, F., Foa, M., Lopopolo, A., Pane, M., Palermo, C., Pera, M. C., Amorelli, G. M., Barresi, C., D'Amico, G., Orazi, L., Coratti, G., Leone, D., Laura, A., De Sanctis, R., Berti, B., Kimura, N., Takeshima, Y., Shimomura, H., Lee, T., Gomi, F., Morimatsu, T., Furukawa, T., Stodolska-Koberda, U., Waskowska, A., Kolendo, J., Sobierajska-Rek, A., Modrzejewska, S., Lemska, A., Melnik, E., Artemyeva, S., Leppenen, N., Yupatova, N., Monakhova, A., Papina, Y., Shidlovsckaia, O., Litvinova, E., Enzmann, C., Galiart, E., Gugleta, K., Wondrusch Haschke, C., Topaloglu, H., Oncel, I., Ertugrul, N. E., Konuskan, B., Eldem, B., Kadayifcilar, S., Alemdaroglu, I., Sari, S., Bilgin, N., Karaduman, A. A., Sarikaya, F. G., Graham, R. J., Ghosh, P., Casavant, D., Levine, A., Titus, R., Engelbrekt, A., Ambrosio, L., Fulton, A., Baglieri, A. M., Dias, C., Maczek, E., Pasternak, A., Beres, S., Duong, T., Gee, R., Young, S. 2022


    BACKGROUND: Risdiplam is an orally administered therapy that modifies pre-mRNA splicing of the survival of motor neuron 2 (SMN2) gene and is approved for the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy. The FIREFISH study is investigating the safety and efficacy of risdiplam in treated infants with type 1 spinal muscular atrophy versus historical controls. The primary endpoint of part 2 of the FIREFISH study showed that infants with type 1 spinal muscular atrophy attained the ability to sit without support for at least 5 s after 12 months of treatment. Here, we report on the safety and efficacy of risdiplam in FIREFISH part 2 over 24 months of treatment.METHODS: FIREFISH is an ongoing, multicentre, open-label, two-part study. In FIREFISH part 2, eligible infants (aged 1-7 months at enrolment, with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy, and two SMN2 gene copies) were enrolled in 14 hospitals in ten countries across Europe, North America, South America, and Asia. Risdiplam was orally administered once daily at 0·2 mg/kg for infants between 5 months and 2 years of age; once an infant reached 2 years of age, the dose was increased to 0·25 mg/kg. Infants younger than 5 months started at 0·04 mg/kg (infants between 1 month and 3 months old) or 0·08 mg/kg (infants between 3 months and 5 months old), and this starting dose was adjusted to 0·2 mg/kg once pharmacokinetic data were available for each infant. The primary and secondary endpoints included in the statistical hierarchy and assessed at month 12 have been reported previously. Here we present the remainder of the secondary efficacy endpoints that were included in the statistical hierarchy at month 24: the ability to sit without support for at least 30 s, to stand alone, and to walk alone, as assessed by the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition gross motor subscale. These three endpoints were compared with a performance criterion of 5% that was defined based on the natural history of type 1 spinal muscular atrophy; the results were considered statistically significant if the lower limit of the two-sided 90% CI was above the 5% threshold. FIREFISH is registered with, NCT02913482. Recruitment is closed; the 36-month extension period of the study is ongoing.FINDINGS: Between March 13 and Nov 19, 2018, 41 infants were enrolled in FIREFISH part 2. After 24 months of treatment, 38 infants were ongoing in the study and 18 infants (44% [90% CI 31-58]) were able to sit without support for at least 30 s (p<0·0001 compared with the performance criterion derived from the natural history of untreated infants with type 1 spinal muscular atrophy). No infants could stand alone (0 [90% CI 0-7]) or walk alone (0 [0-7]) after 24 months of treatment. The most frequently reported adverse event was upper respiratory tract infection, in 22 infants (54%); the most common serious adverse events were pneumonia in 16 infants (39%) and respiratory distress in three infants (7%).INTERPRETATION: Treatment with risdiplam over 24 months resulted in continual improvements in motor function and achievement of developmental motor milestones. The FIREFISH open-label extension phase will provide additional evidence regarding long-term safety and efficacy of risdiplam.FUNDING: F Hoffmann-La Roche.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S1474-4422(22)00339-8

    View details for PubMedID 36244364

  • Disease Progression in CMT related to MPZ Mutations: A Longitudinal Study. Annals of neurology Fridman, V., Sillau, S., Bockhorst, J., Smith, K., Moroni, I., Pagliano, E., Pisciotta, C., Piscosquito, G., Laura, M., Muntoni, F., Bacon, C., Feely, S., Grider, T., Gutmann, L., Shy, R., Wilcox, J., Herrmann, D. N., Li, J., Ramchandren, S., Sumner, C. J., Lloyd, T. E., Day, J., Siskind, C. E., Yum, S. W., Sadjadi, R., Finkel, R. S., Scherer, S. S., Pareyson, D., Reilly, M. M., Shy, M. E., Inherited Neuropathies Consortium-Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network (INC-RDCRN), Fridman, V., Sillau, S., Acsadi, G., Bacon, C., Dooley, K., Burns, J., Day, J., Feely, S., Finkel, R. S., Grider, T., Gutmann, L., Herrmann, D. N., Volpenhein, C., Bockhorst, J., Laura, M., Lewis, R. A., Li, J., Lloyd, T. E., Moroni, I., Muntoni, F., Pagliano, E., Pareyson, D., Pisciotta, C., Piscosquito, G., Ramchandren, S., Saporta, M., Sadjadi, R., Shy, R. R., Siskind, C. E., Sumner, C. J., Walk, D., Yum, S. W., Zuchner, S., Scherer, S. S., Reilly, M. M., Shy, M. E. 2022


    OBJECTIVE: The paucity of longitudinal natural history studies in MPZ-neuropathy remains a barrier to clinical trials. We have completed a longitudinal natural history study in patients with MPZ-neuropathies across 13 sites of the Inherited Neuropathy Consortium.METHODS: Change in Charcot Marie Tooth Examination scores (CMTES) and Rasch modified CMTES (CMTES-R) scores were evaluated using longitudinal regression over a 5-year period in subjects with MPZ-neuropathy. Data from 139 patients with MPZ-neuropathy were examined.RESULTS: The average baseline CMTES and CMTES-R scores were 10.84 (SD 6.0, range 0 - 28) and 14.60 (SD=7.56, range 0 - 32), respectively. A mixed regression model showed significant change in CMTES at years 2-5 [mean change from baseline of 0.87 points at 2years (p=0.008)]. Subgroup analysis revealed greater change in CMTES at 2years in subjects with axonal as compared to demyelinating neuropathy [mean change of 1.30 points, (p=0.016) versus 0.06 points, (p=0.889)]. Patients with a moderate baseline neuropathy severity also showed more notable change, by estimate, than those with mild or severe neuropathy [mean 2 year change of 1.14 for baseline CMTES 8-14 (p=0.025), versus -0.03 for baseline CMTES 0-7 (p=0.958) and 0.25 for baseline CMTES ≥15 (p=0.6897)]. The progression in patients harboring specific MPZ mutations was highly variable.INTERPRETATION: CMTES scores are sensitive to change over time in adult patients with axonal but not demyelinating forms of MPZ-neuropathy. Change in CMTES was greatest in patients with moderate baseline disease severity. These findings will inform future clinical trials of MPZ-neuropathies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ana.26518

    View details for PubMedID 36203352

  • Motor Responses in Pediatric Pompe Disease in the ADVANCE Participant Cohort. Journal of neuromuscular diseases Duong, T., Kishnani, P. S., An Haack, K., Foster, M. C., Gibson, J. B., Wilson, C., Hahn, S. H., Hillman, R., Kronn, D., Leslie, N. D., Peña, L. D., Sparks, S. E., Stockton, D. W., Tanpaiboon, P., Day, J. W. 2022


    ADVANCE (NCT01526785) presented an opportunity to obtain a more nuanced understanding of motor function changes in treatment-experienced children with Pompe disease receiving 4000L-production-scale alglucosidase alfa for 52 weeks.To estimate minimal detectable change (MDC) and effect size on Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) after 52 weeks of 4000L alglucosidase alfa (complete data N =  90).The GMFM-88 mean total % score changes, MDC, and effect size were analyzed post hoc by Pompe Motor Function Level at enrollment, age groups at enrollment, and fraction of life on pre-study 160L-production-scale alglucosidase alfa.Overall, participants aged <  2 years surpassed MDC at Week 52 (change [mean±standard deviation] 21.1±14.1, MDC range 5.7-13.3, effect size 1.1), whereas participants aged≥2 years did not attain this (change -0.9±15.3, MDC range 10.8-25.2, effect size -0.03). In participants aged <  2 years, improvements surpassed the MDC for walkers (change 17.1±13.3, MDC range 3.0-6.9, effect size 1.7), supported standers (change 35.2±18.0, MDC range 5.9-13.7, effect size 1.8) and sitters (change 24.1±12.1, MDC range 2.6-6.2, effect size 2.7). Age-independent MDC ranges were only attained by walkers (change 7.7±12.3, MDC range 6.4-15.0, effect size 0.4) and sitters (change 9.9±17.2, MDC range 3.3-7.7, effect size 0.9).These first GMFM-88 minimal-detectable-change estimates for alglucosidase alfa-treated Pompe disease offer utility for monitoring motor; NCT01526785; Registered 6 February 2012;

    View details for DOI 10.3233/JND-210784

    View details for PubMedID 36214004

  • Adaptive test for neuromuscular disorders: Design of a wheelchair-based assessment Duong, T., Tang, W., Nelson, L., Parker, D., Pasternak, A., Young, S., Muni-Lofra, R., Maczek, E., Michell-Sodhi, J., Moat, D., Chatfield, S., Appleton, P., Day, J., Glanzman, A., Mayhew, A. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. 2022: S61
  • Results from the end of Part A of the ongoing 3-part DEVOTE study to explore higher doses of nusinersen in SMA Day, J., Finkel, R., Pascual, S., Ryan, M., Mercuri, E., De Vivo, D., Montes, J., Gurgel-Giannetti, J., Gambino, G., Makepeace, C., Foster, R., Irzhevsky, V., Berger, Z. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. 2022: S85
  • Evaluating 2-3 year responses to disease modifying treatment in adults with spinal muscular atrophy Duong, T., Tang, W., Young, S., Parker, D., Wolford, C., Sampson, J., Day, J. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. 2022: S90
  • A phase 1/2 clinical trial evaluating the safety and pharmacokinetics of AOC 1001 in adults with myotonic dystrophy type 1: MARINA study design Johnson, N., Day, J., Hamel, J., Statland, J., Subramony, S., Arnold, W., Thornton, C., Wicklund, M., Soltanzadeh, P., Knisely, B., Goel, V., DiTrapani, K., Chen, C., Clark, K., Peters, A., Heusner, C., Younis, H., Tai, L., Ackermann, E. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. 2022: S131
  • Myostatin concentration is unreliable as a biomarker of disease progression in dysferlinopathy Moore, U., Simon, E., Day, J., Jones, K., Bharucha-Goebel, D., Pestronk, A., Walter, M., Paradas, C., Stojkovic, T., Bravver, E., Pegoraro, E., Mendell, J., Guglieri, M., Straub, V., Diaz-Manera, J. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. 2022: S113
  • Safety update: Risdiplam clinical trial development program Chiriboga, C., Servais, L., Baranello, G., Darras, B., Day, J., Deconinck, N., Farrar, M., Finkel, R., Bertini, E., Kirschner, J., Masson, R., Mazurkiewicz-Beldzinska, M., Vlodavets, D., Bader-Weder, S., Gorni, K., Jaber, B., McIver, T., Papp, G., Scalco, R., Mercuri, E. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. 2022: S89
  • Multimodal fusion of neuroimaging and neuropsych data: A machine learning approach to study brain alterations linked with cognitive domains in DM1 Kamali, T., Parker, D., Deutsch, G., Sampson, J., Day, J., Wozniak, J. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. 2022: S132
  • Efficacy and safety of Avalglucosidase Alfa in participants with late-onset Pompe Disease after 145 weeks' treatment during the COMET trial Schoser, B., Kishnani, P., Kushlaf, H., Ladha, S., Mozaffar, T., Straub, Toscano, A., van der Ploeg, A., Clemens, P., Day, J., Illarioshkin, S., Roberts, M., Attarian, S., Carvalho, G., Erdem-Ozdamar, S., Goker-Alpan, O., Kostera-Pruszczyk, A., Diaz-Manera, J., Dimachkie, M., COMET Investigator Grp PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. 2022
  • Real-world outcomes of exon skipping therapy use in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: Experience at a single, large tertiary care center Yaworski, A., Duong, T., Low, J., Gee, R., Watson, K., Buu, M., Kaufman, B., Klotz, J., Day, J., Guzman, J., Rocha, C. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. 2022: S102
  • Clinical outcome study of dysferlinopathy 2: Characterising involvement of the intrinsic muscles of the hand in LGMDR2 James, M., Mayhew, A., Gordish-Dressman, H., Rufibach, L., Wong, K., Roper, W., Holsten, S., Lowes, L., Duong, T., Yochai, C., Zabala Pardo, A., Ogasawara, Y., Rudolph, K., Alarcon, S., Weber, J., Montiel Morillo, E., Pedrosa-Hernandez, I., Birnbaum, S., Rojas Rojas, J., Day, J., Straub, V. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. 2022: S115
  • FIREFISH Parts 1 and 2: 36-month safety and efficacy of risdiplam in Type 1 spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) Servais, L., Baranello, G., Boespflug-Tanguy, O., Day, J., Deconinck, N., Klein, A., Masson, R., Mazurkiewicz-Beldzinska, M., Mercuri, E., Rose, K., Vlodavets, D., Xiong, H., Zanoteli, E., El-Khairi, M., Gerber, M., Gorni, K., Kletzl, H., Palfreeman, L., Dodman, A., Gaki, E., Darras, B. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. 2022: S88
  • Prevalence of healthcare conditions and services used by patients with myotonic dystrophy (DM) pre- and post-diagnosis: A real-world data analysis Day, J., Munoz, K., Brook, R., McEvoy, B., Tai, L., DiTrapani, K., Kleinman, N., Chen, C., Stahl, M. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. 2022: S131
  • Impact of nusinersen on respiratory progression in paediatric patients with spinal muscular atrophy type 2 and non-ambulant type 3 Trucco, F., Weststrate, H., Ridout, D., Scoto, M., Rohwer, A., Coratti, G., Main, M., Pane, M., Messina, S., D'Amico, A., Bruno, C., De Vivo, D., Darras, B., Day, J., Baranello, G., Sansona, V., Bertini, E., Finkel, R., Mercuri, E., Muntoni, F. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. 2022: S89
  • SUNFISH parts 1 and 2: 3-year efficacy and safety of risdiplam in types 2 and 3 spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) Day, J., Deconinck, N., Mazzone, E., Nascimento, A., Oskoui, M., Saito, K., Vuillerot, C., Baranello, G., Boespflug-Tanguy, O., Goemans, N., Kirschner, J., Kostera-Pruszczyk, A., Servais, L., Braid, J., Gerber, M., Gorni, K., Martin, C., Scalco, R., Yeung, W., Mercuri, E. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. 2022: S89-S90
  • Apitegromab in SMA: An analysis of multiple efficacy endpoints in the TOPAZ extension study Crawford, T., Darras, B., Day, J., Barrett, D., Song, G., O'Neil, J., Kertesz, N., Bilic, S., Patel, J., Nomikos, G., Chyung, Y. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. 2022: S86-S87
  • Integrated analyses of data from clinical trials of delandistrogene moxeparvovec in DMD Zaidman, C., Shieh, P., Proud, C., McDonald, C., Day, J., Mason, S., Guridi, M., Hu, L., Yu, L., Reid, C., Darton, E., Wandel, C., Richardson, J., Malhotra, J., Singh, T., Rodino-Klapac, L., Mendell, J. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. 2022: S101
  • Water T2 could predict functional decline in patients with dysferlinopathy. Journal of cachexia, sarcopenia and muscle Moore, U., Caldas de Almeida Araújo, E., Reyngoudt, H., Gordish-Dressman, H., Smith, F. E., Wilson, I., James, M., Mayhew, A., Rufibach, L., Day, J. W., Jones, K. J., Bharucha-Goebel, D. X., Salort-Campana, E., Pestronk, A., Walter, M. C., Paradas, C., Stojkovic, T., Mori-Yoshimura, M., Bravver, E., Pegoraro, E., Mendell, J. R., Bushby, K., Blamire, A. M., Straub, V., Carlier, P. G., Diaz-Manera, J. 2022


    Water T2 (T2H2O ) mapping is increasingly being used in muscular dystrophies to assess active muscle damage. It has been suggested as a surrogate outcome measure for clinical trials. Here, we investigated the prognostic utility of T2H2O to identify changes in muscle function over time in limb girdle muscular dystrophies.Patients with genetically confirmed dysferlinopathy were assessed as part of the Jain Foundation Clinical Outcomes Study in dysferlinopathy. The cohort included 18 patients from two sites, both equipped with 3-tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems from the same vendor. T2H2O value was defined as higher or lower than the median in each muscle bilaterally. The degree of deterioration on four functional tests over 3 years was assessed in a linear model against covariates of high or low T2H2O at baseline, age, disease duration, and baseline function.A higher T2H2O at baseline significantly correlated with a greater decline on functional tests in 21 out of 35 muscles and was never associated with slower decline. Higher baseline T2H2O in adductor magnus, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis were the most sensitive, being associated bilaterally with greater decline in multiple timed tests. Patients with a higher than median baseline T2H2O (>40.6 ms) in the right vastus medialis deteriorated 11 points more on the North Star Ambulatory Assessment for Dysferlinopathy and lost an additional 86 m on the 6-min walk than those with a lower T2H2O (<40.6 ms). Optimum sensitivity and specificity thresholds for predicting decline were 39.0 ms in adductor magnus and vastus intermedius, 40.0 ms in vastus medialis, and 40.5 ms in vastus lateralis from different sites equipped with different MRI systems.In dysferlinopathy, T2H2O did not correlate with current functional ability. However, T2H2O at baseline was higher in patients who worsened more rapidly on functional tests. This suggests that inter-patient differences in functional decline over time may be, in part, explained by different severities of the active muscle damage, assessed by T2H2O measure at baseline. Significant challenges remain in standardizing T2H2O values across sites to allow determining globally applicable thresholds. The results from the present work are encouraging and suggest that T2H2O could be used to improve prognostication, patient selection, and disease modelling for clinical trials.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jcsm.13063

    View details for PubMedID 36058852

  • Large Fenestrations Versus Scallops for the SMA During Fenestrated EVAR: Does it Matter? Annals of vascular surgery Sorondo, S. M., Ss, D., K, T., Vt, H., Jr, S., J, L. 2022


    FEVAR is an established customized treatment for aortic aneurysms with three current commercially available configurations for the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) - a single-wide scallop, large fenestration, or small fenestration, with the scallop or large fenestration most utilized. Outcomes comparing SMA single-wide scallops to large fenestrations with the ZFEN device are scarce. As large fenestrations have the benefit of extending the proximal seal zone compared to scalloped configurations, we sought to determine the differences in seal zone and sac regression outcomes between the two SMA configurations.We retrospectively reviewed our prospectively maintained complex EVAR database and included all patients treated with the Cook ZFEN device with an SMA scallop or large fenestration configuration at its most proximal build. All first post-operative CT scans (1-30 days) were analyzed on TeraRecon to determine precise proximal seal zone lengths, and standard follow-up anatomic and clinical metrics were tabulated.A total of 234 consecutive ZFEN patients from 2012-2021 were reviewed, and 137 had either a scallop or large fenestration for the SMA as the proximal-most configuration (72 scallops and 65 large fenestrations) with imaging available for analysis. Mean follow-up was 35 months. Mean proximal seal zone length was 19.5±7.9 mm for scallop vs 41.7±14.4 mm for large fenestration groups (P<.001). There was no difference in sac regression between scallop and large fenestration at one year (10.1±10.9 mm vs 11.0±12.1, P = 0.63). Overall, 30-day mortality (1.3% vs 2.5%, P=.51) and all-cause three-year mortality (72.5% vs 81.7%, P=.77) were not significantly different. Reinterventions within 30 days were primarily secondary to renal artery branch occlusions, with only one patient in the scallop group requiring reintervention for an SMA branch occlusion.Despite attaining longer proximal seal lengths, large SMA fenestrations were not associated with a difference in sac regression compared to scalloped SMA configurations at one-year follow up. There were no significant differences in reinterventions or overall long-term survival between the two SMA strategies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.avsg.2022.07.013

    View details for PubMedID 36058451

  • SUNFISH 3-YEAR EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF RISDIPLAM IN TYPES 2 AND 3 SMA Servais, L., Day, J. W., Mazzone, E. S., Oskoui, M., Baranello, G., Gerber, M., Martin, C., McIver, T., Yeung, W., Mercuri, E. BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP. 2022
  • SUNFISH PART 2: 24-MONTH EFFICACY OF RISDIPLAM COMPARED WITH EXTERNAL CONTROL COMPARATORS Servais, L., Day, J. W., Mazzone, E. S., Oskoui, M., Baranello, G., Gerber, M., Martin, C., McIver, T., Yeung, W., Mercuri, E. BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP. 2022
  • Cognitive Impairment Analysis of Myotonic Dystrophy via Weakly Supervised Classification of Neuropsychological Features. Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual International Conference Kamali, T., Deutsch, G. K., Hagerman, K. A., Parker, D., Day, J. W., Sampson, J. B., Wozniak, J. R. 2022; 2022: 4377-4382


    The myotonic dystrophies (DM1 and DM2) are dominantly inherited disorders that cause pathological changes throughout the body. Many individuals with DM experience cognitive, behavioral and other functional central nervous system effects that impact their quality of life. The extent of psychological impairment that will develop in each patient is variable and unpredictable. Hence, it is difficult to get strong supervision information like fully ground truth labels for all cognitive involvement patterns. This study is to assess cognitive involvement among healthy controls and patients with DM. The DM cognitive impairment pattern observation is modeled in a weakly supervised setting and supervision information is used to transform the input feature space to a more discriminative representation suitable for pattern observation. This study incorporated results from 59 adults with DM and 92 control subjects. The developed system categorized the neuropsychological testing data into five cognitive clusters. The quality of the obtained clustering solution was assessed using an internal validity metric. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can discover interesting patterns and useful information from neuropsychological data, which will be be crucial in planning clinical trials and monitoring clinical performance. The proposed system resulted in an average classification accuracy of 88%, which is very promising considering the unique challenges present in this population.

    View details for DOI 10.1109/EMBC48229.2022.9871626

    View details for PubMedID 36086274

  • Spinal Muscular Atrophy Type 1: Fetal Diagnosis, Prenatal Coordination, and Postnatal Management in the Era of Novel Therapies. NeoReviews Chitkara, R., Chock, V., Davis, A., Rocha, C. T., Day, J. W., Fluharty, B., Hintz, S. 2022; 23 (7): e520-e526

    View details for DOI 10.1542/neo.23-7-e520

    View details for PubMedID 35773512

  • SUNFISH: 3-year efficacy and safety of risdiplam in Types 2 and 3 spinal muscular atrophy Goemans, N., Day, J., Deconinck, N., Mazzone, E., Nascimento, A., Oskoui, M., Saito, K., Vuillerot, C., Baranello, G., Boespflug-Tanguy, O., Kirschner, J., Kostera-Pruszczyk, A., Servais, L., Braid, J., Gerber, M., Gorni, K., Martin, C., Scalco, R., Yeung, W., Mercuri, E., SUNFISH Working Grp WILEY. 2022: 278
  • FIREFISH Parts 1 and 2: 36-month safety and efficacy of risdiplam in Type 1 spinal muscular atrophy Deconinck, N., Baranello, G., Boespflug-Tanguy, O., Day, J., Klein, A., Masson, R., Mazurkiewicz-Beldzinska, M., Mercuri, E., Rose, K., Servais, L., Vlodavets, D., Xiong, H., Zanoteli, E., El-Khairi, M., Gerber, M., Gorni, K., Kletzl, H., Dodman, A., Gaki, E., Darras, B., FIREFISH Working Grp WILEY. 2022: 279
  • COMET: Efficacy and safety of avalglucosidase alfa in late-onset Pompe disease participants after 97 weeks of treatment Schoser, B., Kishnani, P., Diaz-Manera, J., Kushlaf, H., Ladha, S., Mozaffar, T., Straub, V., Toscano, A., Van der Ploeg, A., Berger, K., Clemens, P., Chien, Y., Day, J., Ilarioshkin, S., Roberts, M., Attarian, S., Carvalho, G., Choi, Y., Erdem-Ozdamar, S., Goker-Alpan, O., Kostera-Pruszczyk, A., Haack, K., Thibault, N., Zhou, T., Dimachkie, M., COMET Investigator Grp WILEY. 2022: 59-60
  • MECP2-related pathways are dysregulated in a cortical organoid model of myotonic dystrophy. Science translational medicine Morelli, K. H., Jin, W., Shathe, S., Madrigal, A. A., Jones, K. L., Schwartz, J. L., Bridges, T., Mueller, J. R., Shankar, A., Chaim, I. A., Day, J. W., Yeo, G. W. 2022; 14 (651): eabn2375


    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multisystem, autosomal-dominant inherited disorder caused by CTG microsatellite repeat expansions (MREs) in the 3' untranslated region of the dystrophia myotonica-protein kinase (DMPK) gene. Despite its prominence as the most common adult-onset muscular dystrophy, patients with congenital to juvenile-onset forms of DM1 can present with debilitating neurocognitive symptoms along the autism spectrum, characteristic of possible in utero cortical defects. However, the molecular mechanism by which CTG MREs lead to these developmental central nervous system (CNS) manifestations is unknown. Here, we showed that CUG foci found early in the maturation of three-dimensional (3D) cortical organoids from DM1 patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) cause hyperphosphorylation of CUGBP Elav-like family member 2 (CELF2) protein. Integrative single-cell RNA sequencing and enhanced cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (eCLIP) analysis revealed that reduced CELF2 protein-RNA substrate interactions results in misregulation of genes critical for excitatory synaptic signaling in glutamatergic neurons, including key components of the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) pathway. Comparisons to MECP2(y/-) cortical organoids revealed convergent molecular and cellular defects such as glutamate toxicity and neuronal loss. Our findings provide evidence suggesting that early-onset DM1 might involve neurodevelopmental disorder-associated pathways and identify N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) antagonists as potential treatment avenues for neuronal defects in DM1.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.abn2375

    View details for PubMedID 35767654

  • Scientific rationale for a higher dose of nusinersen. Annals of clinical and translational neurology Finkel, R. S., Ryan, M. M., Pascual Pascual, S. I., Day, J. W., Mercuri, E., De Vivo, D. C., Foster, R., Montes, J., Gurgel-Giannetti, J., MacCannell, D., Berger, Z. 2022


    OBJECTIVE: The long-term favorable safety profile of nusinersen provides an opportunity to consider a higher dose. We report on the relationships between nusinersen cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) exposure, biomarker levels, and clinical efficacy.METHODS: The analyses used data from the CS3A and ENDEAR studies of nusinersen in participants with infantile-onset spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Steady-state CSF trough (Ctrough ) levels, plasma phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain (pNF-H) levels, body weight, and Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Infant Test of Neuromuscular Disorders (CHOP INTEND) scores were selected as parameters of interest. A validated population pharmacokinetic (PK) model was applied to predict the nusinersen CSF Ctrough . PK/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) models used nusinersen CSF Ctrough measurements, which were time-matched with CHOP INTEND scores.RESULTS: Higher nusinersen CSF exposure was associated with a greater decrease in pNF-H levels and greater efficacy, as measured by change in the CHOP INTEND score from baseline. These findings indicate a dose-response relationship between CSF nusinersen levels and treatment response. The higher dose is predicted to lead to approximately a 2.4-fold increase in nusinersen CSF levels with fewer loading doses. PK/PD modeling indicates that a higher concentration of nusinersen may predict an additional 5-point increase in CHOP INTEND score beyond that observed with 12mg.INTERPRETATION: Our data indicate that a higher dose of nusinersen may lead to additional clinically meaningful improvement in efficacy when compared with the currently approved 12-mg dose. The efficacy, safety, and PK of a higher nusinersen dose are currently under investigation in the ongoing phase 2/3 DEVOTE study (NCT04089566).

    View details for DOI 10.1002/acn3.51562

    View details for PubMedID 35567345

  • Mesial Temporal Enlargement in Adult-Onset Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 Fecto, F., Parker, D., Sampson, J., Mueller, B., Lim, K., Wozniak, J., Hagerman, K., Day, J. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2022
  • The RESTORE Registry: Real -World Assessments of Interventions and Long -Term Outcomes in Patients with Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) Finkel, R., Day, J., De Vivo, D., Mercuri, E., Muntoni, F., Shieh, P., Tizzano, E., Desguerre, I., Saito, K., Menier, M., LaMarca, N., Anderson, F., Dabbous, O., Servais, L. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2022
  • FIREFISH Parts 1 and 2: 24-month Safety and Efficacy of Risdiplam in Type 1 SMA Darras, B. T., Boespflug-Tanguy, O., Day, J. W., Deconinck, N., Klein, A., Masson, R., Mazurkiewicz-Beldzinska, M., Mercuri, E., Rose, K., Servais, L., Vlodavets, D., Xiong, H., Zanoteli, E., Dodman, A., El-Khairi, M., Gaki, E., Gerber, M., Gorni, K., Kletzl, H., Baranello, G. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2022
  • Mesial Temporal Enlargement in Adult-Onset Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 Fecto, F., Parker, D., Sampson, J., Mueller, B., Lim, K., Wozniak, J., Hagerman, K., Day, J. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2022
  • Pooled Safety Data from the Risdiplam Clinical Trial Development Program Darras, B. T., Chiriboga, C. A., Servais, L., Baranello, G., Bertini, E., Day, J. W., Deconinck, N., Fischer, D., Goemans, N., Kirschner, J., Klein, A., Masson, R., Mazurkiewicz-Beldzinska, M., Wang, Y., Bader-Weder, S., Gorni, K., Jaber, B., McIver, T., Scalco, R., Mercuri, E. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2022
  • Apitegromab in Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA): An Analysis of Multiple Efficacy Endpoints in the TOPAZ Trial Crawford, T., Darras, B., Day, J., Song, G., Nomikos, G., Place, A., Barrett, D., Bilic, S., O'Neil, J., Kertesz, N., Cote, S., Patel, J., Chyung, Y. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2022