Publications

SCBE faculty and fellows publish often in leading journals. SCBE is also home to the editorial office of the American Journal of Bioethics (AJOB).

 

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Clinical Associate Professor, Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine Clinical Associate Professor (By courtesy), Pediatrics

Publications

  • Physician Unionization: Opportunities and Challenges for Anesthesiologists in the United States. Anesthesia and analgesia Hendrix, J. M., Burgart, A. M., Baker, E. B., Wolman, R. L., Kras, J. F. 2023

    Abstract

    Physician unionization is gaining traction in the United States, with <10% of practicing physicians now members, up from historically weak support. Factors that drive interest in unions include a decreased number of independent practitioners, an increase in workloads, and the erosion of autonomy. Approximately 56% of anesthesiologists are considered employees and may be eligible for union membership. Physician unions may provide higher wages, better working conditions, and legal protection. However, they also raise concerns about patient care and professionalism. This article discusses the legal and regulatory framework governing the unionization of physicians, benefits, challenges, and potential future developments. Continued analysis and debate are necessary to determine the optimal role of physician unions in the health care industry.

    View details for DOI 10.1213/ANE.0000000000006852

    View details for PubMedID 38091478

  • Recommendations for the use of pediatric data in artificial intelligence and machine learning ACCEPT-AI. NPJ digital medicine Muralidharan, V., Burgart, A., Daneshjou, R., Rose, S. 2023; 6 (1): 166

    Abstract

    ACCEPT-AI is a framework of recommendations for the safe inclusion of pediatric data in artificial intelligence and machine learning (AI/ML) research. It has been built on fundamental ethical principles of pediatric and AI research and incorporates age, consent, assent, communication, equity, protection of data, and technological considerations. ACCEPT-AI has been designed to guide researchers, clinicians, regulators, and policymakers and can be utilized as an independent tool, or adjunctively to existing AI/ML guidelines.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41746-023-00898-5

    View details for PubMedID 37673925

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10482936

  • Violence in the pain clinic: the hidden pandemic. Regional anesthesia and pain medicine Fawzy, Y., Siddiqui, Z., Narouze, S., Potru, S., Burgart, A. M., Udoji, M. A. 2023

    Abstract

    Workplace violence is any physical assault, threatening behavior or other verbal abuse directed toward persons at work or in the workplace. The incidence of workplace violence in healthcare settings in general and more specifically the pain clinic is thought to be underestimated due to hesitancy to report, lack of support from management and healthcare systems, and lack of institutional policies as it relates to violence from patients against healthcare workers. In the following article, we explore risk factors that place clinicians at risk of workplace violence, the cost and impact of workplace violence, how to build a violence prevention program and lastly how to recover from violence in the practice setting.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/rapm-2022-104308

    View details for PubMedID 36754543

Associate Professor of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine (Pediatric)

Publications

  • President Biden's Executive Order on Artificial Intelligence-Implications for Health Care Organizations. JAMA Mello, M. M., Shah, N. H., Char, D. S. 2023

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jama.2023.25051

    View details for PubMedID 38032634

  • Considerations for addressing bias in artificial intelligence for health equity. NPJ digital medicine Abràmoff, M. D., Tarver, M. E., Loyo-Berrios, N., Trujillo, S., Char, D., Obermeyer, Z., Eydelman, M. B., Maisel, W. H. 2023; 6 (1): 170

    Abstract

    Health equity is a primary goal of healthcare stakeholders: patients and their advocacy groups, clinicians, other providers and their professional societies, bioethicists, payors and value based care organizations, regulatory agencies, legislators, and creators of artificial intelligence/machine learning (AI/ML)-enabled medical devices. Lack of equitable access to diagnosis and treatment may be improved through new digital health technologies, especially AI/ML, but these may also exacerbate disparities, depending on how bias is addressed. We propose an expanded Total Product Lifecycle (TPLC) framework for healthcare AI/ML, describing the sources and impacts of undesirable bias in AI/ML systems in each phase, how these can be analyzed using appropriate metrics, and how they can be potentially mitigated. The goal of these "Considerations" is to educate stakeholders on how potential AI/ML bias may impact healthcare outcomes and how to identify and mitigate inequities; to initiate a discussion between stakeholders on these issues, in order to ensure health equity along the expanded AI/ML TPLC framework, and ultimately, better health outcomes for all.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41746-023-00913-9

    View details for PubMedID 37700029

    View details for PubMedCentralID 6941147

  • Case Report: Parental Separation by Proxy Using Video Conference Between Patient and Parent for Induction of Anesthesia. A&A practice Quinonez, Z. A., Brandford, E., Char, D. 2023; 17 (7): e01696

    Abstract

    Anesthetic induction in children can have significant psychological and behavioral impacts. Strategies like premedication or parental presence for induction may reduce distress. In children who require ongoing procedural care into adulthood, like those who receive heart transplants, transitioning from these strategies toward independence may require intermediate steps. The use of parental presence by video may aid in this transition. It might also be a reasonable approach for those children who have adverse reactions to medications commonly used for anxiolysis before procedures.

    View details for DOI 10.1213/XAA.0000000000001696

    View details for PubMedID 37409741

Professor (Research) of Pediatrics (Center for Biomedical Ethics) and of Medicine (Primary Care and Population Health)

Publications

  • Not in my AI: Moral engagement and disengagement in health care AI development. Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing. Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing Nichol, A. A., Halley, M. C., Federico, C. A., Cho, M. K., Sankar, P. L. 2023; 28: 496-506

    Abstract

    Machine learning predictive analytics (MLPA) are utilized increasingly in health care, but can pose harms to patients, clinicians, health systems, and the public. The dynamic nature of this technology creates unique challenges to evaluating safety and efficacy and minimizing harms. In response, regulators have proposed an approach that would shift more responsibility to MLPA developers for mitigating potential harms. To be effective, this approach requires MLPA developers to recognize, accept, and act on responsibility for mitigating harms. In interviews of 40 MLPA developers of health care applications in the United States, we found that a subset of ML developers made statements reflecting moral disengagement, representing several different potential rationales that could create distance between personal accountability and harms. However, we also found a different subset of ML developers who expressed recognition of their role in creating potential hazards, the moral weight of their design decisions, and a sense of responsibility for mitigating harms. We also found evidence of moral conflict and uncertainty about responsibility for averting harms as an individual developer working in a company. These findings suggest possible facilitators and barriers to the development of ethical ML that could act through encouragement of moral engagement or discouragement of moral disengagement. Regulatory approaches that depend on the ability of ML developers to recognize, accept, and act on responsibility for mitigating harms might have limited success without education and guidance for ML developers about the extent of their responsibilities and how to implement them.

    View details for PubMedID 36541003

  • The ELSI Virtual Forum, 30 Years of the Genome: Integrating and Applying ELSI Research. The Journal of law, medicine & ethics : a journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics Moore, C. B., Dolan, D. D., Yarmolinsky, R., Cho, M. K., Soo-Jin-Lee, S. 2023; 51 (3): 661-671

    Abstract

    This paper reports our analysis of the ELSI Virtual Forum: 30 Years of the Genome: Integrating and Applying ELSI Research, an online meeting of scholars focused on the ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) of genetics and genomics.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/jme.2023.109

    View details for PubMedID 38088602

  • Developer Perspectives on Potential Harms of Machine Learning Predictive Analytics in Health Care: Qualitative Analysis. Journal of medical Internet research Nichol, A. A., Sankar, P. L., Halley, M. C., Federico, C. A., Cho, M. K. 2023; 25: e47609

    Abstract

    Machine learning predictive analytics (MLPA) is increasingly used in health care to reduce costs and improve efficacy; it also has the potential to harm patients and trust in health care. Academic and regulatory leaders have proposed a variety of principles and guidelines to address the challenges of evaluating the safety of machine learning-based software in the health care context, but accepted practices do not yet exist. However, there appears to be a shift toward process-based regulatory paradigms that rely heavily on self-regulation. At the same time, little research has examined the perspectives about the harms of MLPA developers themselves, whose role will be essential in overcoming the "principles-to-practice" gap.The objective of this study was to understand how MLPA developers of health care products perceived the potential harms of those products and their responses to recognized harms.We interviewed 40 individuals who were developing MLPA tools for health care at 15 US-based organizations, including data scientists, software engineers, and those with mid- and high-level management roles. These 15 organizations were selected to represent a range of organizational types and sizes from the 106 that we previously identified. We asked developers about their perspectives on the potential harms of their work, factors that influence these harms, and their role in mitigation. We used standard qualitative analysis of transcribed interviews to identify themes in the data.We found that MLPA developers recognized a range of potential harms of MLPA to individuals, social groups, and the health care system, such as issues of privacy, bias, and system disruption. They also identified drivers of these harms related to the characteristics of machine learning and specific to the health care and commercial contexts in which the products are developed. MLPA developers also described strategies to respond to these drivers and potentially mitigate the harms. Opportunities included balancing algorithm performance goals with potential harms, emphasizing iterative integration of health care expertise, and fostering shared company values. However, their recognition of their own responsibility to address potential harms varied widely.Even though MLPA developers recognized that their products can harm patients, public, and even health systems, robust procedures to assess the potential for harms and the need for mitigation do not exist. Our findings suggest that, to the extent that new oversight paradigms rely on self-regulation, they will face serious challenges if harms are driven by features that developers consider inescapable in health care and business environments. Furthermore, effective self-regulation will require MLPA developers to accept responsibility for safety and efficacy and know how to act accordingly. Our results suggest that, at the very least, substantial education will be necessary to fill the "principles-to-practice" gap.

    View details for DOI 10.2196/47609

    View details for PubMedID 37971798

Postdoctoral Scholar, Biomedical Ethics

Publications

  • Not in my AI: Moral engagement and disengagement in health care AI development. Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing. Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing Nichol, A. A., Halley, M. C., Federico, C. A., Cho, M. K., Sankar, P. L. 2023; 28: 496-506

    Abstract

    Machine learning predictive analytics (MLPA) are utilized increasingly in health care, but can pose harms to patients, clinicians, health systems, and the public. The dynamic nature of this technology creates unique challenges to evaluating safety and efficacy and minimizing harms. In response, regulators have proposed an approach that would shift more responsibility to MLPA developers for mitigating potential harms. To be effective, this approach requires MLPA developers to recognize, accept, and act on responsibility for mitigating harms. In interviews of 40 MLPA developers of health care applications in the United States, we found that a subset of ML developers made statements reflecting moral disengagement, representing several different potential rationales that could create distance between personal accountability and harms. However, we also found a different subset of ML developers who expressed recognition of their role in creating potential hazards, the moral weight of their design decisions, and a sense of responsibility for mitigating harms. We also found evidence of moral conflict and uncertainty about responsibility for averting harms as an individual developer working in a company. These findings suggest possible facilitators and barriers to the development of ethical ML that could act through encouragement of moral engagement or discouragement of moral disengagement. Regulatory approaches that depend on the ability of ML developers to recognize, accept, and act on responsibility for mitigating harms might have limited success without education and guidance for ML developers about the extent of their responsibilities and how to implement them.

    View details for PubMedID 36541003

  • Stronger regulation of AI in biomedicine. Science translational medicine Trotsyuk, A. A., Federico, C. A., Cho, M. K., Altman, R. B., Magnus, D. 2023; 15 (713): eadi0336

    Abstract

    Regulatory agencies need to ensure the safety and equity of AI in biomedicine, and the time to do so is now.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.adi0336

    View details for PubMedID 37703349

  • Ethical and epistemic issues in the design and conduct of pragmatic stepped-wedge cluster randomized clinical trials. Contemporary clinical trials Federico, C. A., Heagerty, P. J., Lantos, J., O'Rourke, P., Rahimzadeh, V., Sugarman, J., Weinfurt, K., Wendler, D., Wilfond, B. S., Magnus, D. 2022: 106703

    Abstract

    Stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial (SW-CRT) designs are increasingly employed in pragmatic research; they differ from traditional parallel cluster randomized trials in which an intervention is delivered to a subset of clusters, but not to all. In a SW-CRT, all clusters receive the intervention under investigation by the end of the study. This approach is thought to avoid ethical concerns about the denial of a desired intervention to participants in control groups. Such concerns have been cited in the literature as a primary motivation for choosing SW-CRT design, however SW-CRTs raise additional ethical concerns related to the delayed implementation of an intervention and consent. Yet, PCT investigators may choose SW-CRT designs simply because they are concerned that other study designs are infeasible. In this paper, we examine justifications for the use of SW-CRT study design, over other designs, by drawing on the experience of the National Institutes of Health's Health Care Systems Research Collaboratory (NIH Collaboratory) with five pragmatic SW-CRTs. We found that decisions to use SW-CRT design were justified by practical and epistemic reasons rather than ethical ones. These include concerns about feasibility, the heterogeneity of cluster characteristics, and the desire for simultaneous clinical evaluation and implementation. In this paper we compare the potential benefits of SW-CRTs against the ethical and epistemic challenges brought forth by the design and suggest that the choice of SW-CRT design must balance epistemic, feasibility and ethical justifications. Moreover, given their complexity, such studies need rigorous and informed ethical oversight.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cct.2022.106703

    View details for PubMedID 35176501

Deane F. and Kate Edelman Johnson Professor of Law and, Professor, by courtesy, of Genetics

Publications

  • Neuroscience and the Criminal Justice System ANNUAL REVIEW OF CRIMINOLOGY, VOL 2 Greely, H. T., Farahany, N. A., Petersilia, J., Sampson, R. J. 2019; 2: 451–71
  • Neuroethics Guiding Principles for the NIH BRAIN Initiative. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience Greely, H. T., Grady, C., Ramos, K. M., Chiong, W., Eberwine, J., Farahany, N. A., Johnson, L. S., Hyman, B. T., Hyman, S. E., Rommelfanger, K. S., Serrano, E. E. 2018; 38 (50): 10586–88

    View details for DOI 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2077-18.2018

    View details for PubMedID 30541767

  • The ethics of experimenting with human brain tissue. Nature Farahany, N. A., Greely, H. T., Hyman, S. n., Koch, C. n., Grady, C. n., Pașca, S. P., Sestan, N. n., Arlotta, P. n., Bernat, J. L., Ting, J. n., Lunshof, J. E., Iyer, E. P., Hyun, I. n., Capestany, B. H., Church, G. M., Huang, H. n., Song, H. n. 2018; 556 (7702): 429–32

    View details for DOI 10.1038/d41586-018-04813-x

    View details for PubMedID 29691509

Sr Research Scholar, School of Medicine - Biomedical Ethics

Publications

  • Recurring homozygous ACTN2 variant (p.Arg506Gly) causes a recessive myopathy. Annals of clinical and translational neurology Donkervoort, S., Mohassel, P., O'Leary, M., Bonner, D. E., Hartley, T., Acquaye, N., Brull, A., Mozaffar, T., Saporta, M. A., Dyment, D. A., Sampson, J. B., Pajusalu, S., Austin-Tse, C., Hurth, K., Cohen, J. S., McWalter, K., Warman-Chardon, J., Crunk, A., Foley, A. R., Mammen, A. L., Wheeler, M. T., O'Donnell-Luria, A., Bönnemann, C. G. 2024

    Abstract

    ACTN2, encoding alpha-actinin-2, is essential for cardiac and skeletal muscle sarcomeric function. ACTN2 variants are a known cause of cardiomyopathy without skeletal muscle involvement. Recently, specific dominant monoallelic variants were reported as a rare cause of core myopathy of variable clinical onset, although the pathomechanism remains to be elucidated. The possibility of a recessively inherited ACTN2-myopathy has also been proposed in a single series.We provide clinical, imaging, and histological characterization of a series of patients with a novel biallelic ACTN2 variant.We report seven patients from five families with a recurring biallelic variant in ACTN2: c.1516A>G (p.Arg506Gly), all manifesting with a consistent phenotype of asymmetric, progressive, proximal, and distal lower extremity predominant muscle weakness. None of the patients have cardiomyopathy or respiratory insufficiency. Notably, all patients report Palestinian ethnicity, suggesting a possible founder ACTN2 variant, which was confirmed through haplotype analysis in two families. Muscle biopsies reveal an underlying myopathic process with disruption of the intermyofibrillar architecture, Type I fiber predominance and atrophy. MRI of the lower extremities demonstrate a distinct pattern of asymmetric muscle involvement with selective involvement of the hamstrings and adductors in the thigh, and anterior tibial group and soleus in the lower leg. Using an in vitro splicing assay, we show that c.1516A>G ACTN2 does not impair normal splicing.This series further establishes ACTN2 as a muscle disease gene, now also including variants with a recessive inheritance mode, and expands the clinical spectrum of actinopathies to adult-onset progressive muscle disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/acn3.51983

    View details for PubMedID 38311799

  • Practical Approaches to Enhancing Fairness, Social Responsibility and the Inclusion of Diverse Viewpoints in Biomedicine. Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing. Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing Martschenko, D. O., Martinez-Martin, N., Halley, M. 2024; 29: 645-649

    Abstract

    The following sections are included:Workshop DescriptionLearning ObjectivesPresenter InformationAbout the Workshop OrganizersPresentationsSpeaker Presentations.

    View details for PubMedID 38160313

  • Not in my AI: Moral engagement and disengagement in health care AI development. Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing. Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing Nichol, A. A., Halley, M. C., Federico, C. A., Cho, M. K., Sankar, P. L. 2023; 28: 496-506

    Abstract

    Machine learning predictive analytics (MLPA) are utilized increasingly in health care, but can pose harms to patients, clinicians, health systems, and the public. The dynamic nature of this technology creates unique challenges to evaluating safety and efficacy and minimizing harms. In response, regulators have proposed an approach that would shift more responsibility to MLPA developers for mitigating potential harms. To be effective, this approach requires MLPA developers to recognize, accept, and act on responsibility for mitigating harms. In interviews of 40 MLPA developers of health care applications in the United States, we found that a subset of ML developers made statements reflecting moral disengagement, representing several different potential rationales that could create distance between personal accountability and harms. However, we also found a different subset of ML developers who expressed recognition of their role in creating potential hazards, the moral weight of their design decisions, and a sense of responsibility for mitigating harms. We also found evidence of moral conflict and uncertainty about responsibility for averting harms as an individual developer working in a company. These findings suggest possible facilitators and barriers to the development of ethical ML that could act through encouragement of moral engagement or discouragement of moral disengagement. Regulatory approaches that depend on the ability of ML developers to recognize, accept, and act on responsibility for mitigating harms might have limited success without education and guidance for ML developers about the extent of their responsibilities and how to implement them.

    View details for PubMedID 36541003

Clinical Associate Professor, Medicine - Primary Care and Population Health

Publications

  • Education About Specialty Palliative Care Among Non-Healthcare Workers: A Systematic Review. Journal of pain and symptom management Smith, G. M., Singh, N., Hui, F., Sossenheimer, P. H., Hannah, J. M., Romano, P., Wong, H. C., Heidari, S. N., Harman, S. M. 2023

    Abstract

    Despite the expansion of palliative care (PC) services, the public has little knowledge and holds misperceptions about PC, creating barriers to accessing timely specialty PC.To systematically review the evidence regarding the efficacy of educational interventions to improve knowledge and attitudes about PC among non-healthcare workers.We searched five databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, CIANHL, Web of Science, and Scopus) for studies investigating educational interventions about specialty PC in adults who identified as patients, caregivers, or members of the public. We included studies that were available in English and had a comparator group. We excluded studies that only sampled health professionals or children. We used the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool to assess quality and risk of bias.Of 12,420 records identified, we screened 5,948 abstracts and assessed 526 full texts for eligibility. 21 articles were extracted for analysis, representing 20 unique educational interventions. Common methodologies included quasi-experimental (9, 45%), randomized controlled trial (4, 20%), and non-randomized trial (2, 10%). Common components of the educational interventions included video presentations (9, 45%), written materials (8, 40%), and lectures (4, 20%). Content included definition (14, 70%) and philosophy (14, 70%) of PC, distinctions between PC and hospice (11, 55%), and eligibility for PC (11, 55%). Fourteen (70%) interventions showed statistically significant positive differences in either knowledge or attitudes about PC.While educational interventions can positively impact knowledge and attitudes about PC among non-healthcare workers, more research is needed to inform the design, delivery, and evaluation of interventions to increase knowledge and attitudes about PC.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2023.09.023

    View details for PubMedID 37797678

  • Designing Code Status Orders that Convey Patient Preferences for Emergency Intubation: A Qualitative Assessment Batten, J., Blythe, J., Shearer, E., Dzeng, E., Cotler, M., Porter-Williamson, K., Kayser, J., Harman, S., Magnus, D., Wieten, S. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2023: 170
  • "No Escalation of Treatment" Designations: A Multi-Institutional Exploratory Qualitative Study. Chest Batten, J. N., Blythe, J. A., Wieten, S. E., Dzeng, E., Kruse, K. E., Cotler, M. P., Porter-Williamson, K., Kayser, J. B., Harman, S. M., Magnus, D. 2022

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: No Escalation of Treatment (NoET) designations are used in intensive care units internationally to limit treatment for critically ill patients. However, they are the subject of debate in the literature and have not been qualitatively studied.QUESTION: How do physicians understand and perceive NoET designations, especially with regards to their utility and associated challenges? What mechanisms do hospitals provide to facilitate the use of NoET designations?STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Qualitative study at seven United States hospitals, employing semi-structured interviews with thirty physicians and review of relevant institutional records (e.g., hospital policies, screenshots of ordering menus in the electronic health record).RESULTS: At all hospitals, participants reported the use of NoET designations, which were understood to mean that providers should withhold new or higher-intensity interventions ("escalations") but not withdraw ongoing interventions. Three hospitals provided a specific mechanism for designating a patient as NoET (e.g., a DNR/Do-Not-Escalate code status order); at the remaining hospitals, a variety of informal methods (e.g., verbal handoffs) were used. We identified five functions of NoET designations: (1) Defining an intermediate point of treatment limitation, (2) Helping physicians navigate pre-arrest clinical decompensations, (3) Helping surrogate decision makers transition toward comfort care, (4) Preventing patient harm from invasive measures, and (5) Conserving critical care resources. Across hospitals, participants reported implementation challenges related to the ambiguity in meaning of NoET designations.INTERPRETATION: Despite ongoing debate, NoET designations are used in a varied sample of hospitals and are perceived as having multiple functions, suggesting they may fulfill an important need in the care of critically ill patients, especially at the end of life. The use of NoET designations can be improved through the implementation of a formal mechanism that encourages consistency across providers and clarifies the meaning of "escalation" for each patient.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.chest.2022.08.2211

    View details for PubMedID 36007596

Sr Research Scholar, Pediatrics - Center for Biomedical Ethics

Publications

  • Excavating the Personal Genome: The Good Biocitizen in the Age of Precision Health HASTINGS CENTER REPORT Lee, S. 2020; 50: S54–S61

    Abstract

    The rise of genomic technologies has catalyzed shifts in the health care landscape through the commercialization of genome sequencing and testing services in the genomics marketplace. The development of consumer genomics into a growing array of information technologies aimed at collecting, curating, and broadly sharing personal data and biological materials reconstitutes the meaning of health and reframes patients into biocitizens. In this context, the good biocitizen is expected to assume personal responsibility for health through consumption of genomic information and acquiescence to public and private efforts at data surveillance and aggregation. These shifts raise fundamental questions about how competing interests of the public, the state, and corporate entities will be reconciled and what trade-offs are demanded for the promise of precision health.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/hast.1156

    View details for Web of Science ID 000543918300008

    View details for PubMedID 32597530

  • Integrating stakeholder feedback in translational genomics research: an ethnographic analysis of a study protocol's evolution. Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics Kraft, S. A., McMullen, C. n., Lindberg, N. M., Bui, D. n., Shipman, K. n., Anderson, K. n., Joseph, G. n., Duenas, D. M., Porter, K. M., Kauffman, T. L., Koomas, A. n., Ransom, C. L., Jackson, P. n., Goddard, K. A., Wilfond, B. S., Lee, S. S. 2020

    Abstract

    This study describes challenges faced while incorporating sometimes conflicting stakeholder feedback into study design and development of patient-facing materials for a translational genomics study aiming to reduce health disparities among diverse populations.We conducted an ethnographic analysis of study documents including summaries of patient advisory committee meetings and interviews, reflective field notes written by study team members, and correspondence with our institutional review board (IRB). Through this analysis, we identified cross-cutting challenges for incorporating stakeholder feedback into development of our recruitment, risk assessment, and informed consent processes and materials.Our analysis revealed three key challenges: (1) balancing precision and simplicity in the design of study materials, (2) providing clinical care within the research context, and (3) emphasizing potential study benefits versus risks and limitations.While involving patient stakeholders in study design and materials development can increase inclusivity and responsiveness to patient needs, patient feedback may conflict with that of content area experts on the research team and IRBs who are tasked with overseeing the research. Our analysis highlights the need for further empirical research about ethical challenges when incorporating patient feedback into study design, and for dialogue with genomic researchers and IRB representatives about these issues.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41436-020-0763-z

    View details for PubMedID 32089547

  • Obligations of the "Gift": Reciprocity and Responsibility in Precision Medicine. The American journal of bioethics : AJOB Lee, S. S. 2020: 1–15

    Abstract

    Precision medicine relies on data and biospecimens from participants who willingly offer their personal information on the promise that this act will ultimately result in knowledge that will improve human health. Drawing on anthropological framings of the "gift," this paper contextualizes participation in precision medicine as inextricable from social relationships and their ongoing ethical obligations. Going beyond altruism, reframing biospecimen and data collection in terms of socially regulated gift-giving recovers questions of responsibility and care. As opposed to conceiving participation in terms of donations that elide clinical labor critical to precision medicine, the gift metaphor underscores ethical commitments to reciprocity and responsibility. This demands confronting inequities in precision medicine, such as systemic bias and lack of affordability and access. A focus on justice in precision medicine that recognizes the sociality of the gift is a critical frontier for bioethics.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/15265161.2020.1851813

    View details for PubMedID 33325811

Thomas A. Raffin Professor of Medicine and Biomedical Ethics and Professor (Teaching) of Medicine (Primary Care and Population Health)

Publications

  • The Unsuccessful Effort to Revise the Uniform Determination of Death Act. JAMA Truog, R. D., Magnus, D. C. 2023

    Abstract

    This Viewpoint summarizes the major issues that led to the decision to draft a revision of the Uniform Determination of Death Act, the alternatives that were considered, why there was failure to reach consensus, and what this means for the future.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jama.2023.24475

    View details for PubMedID 38060232

  • Stronger regulation of AI in biomedicine. Science translational medicine Trotsyuk, A. A., Federico, C. A., Cho, M. K., Altman, R. B., Magnus, D. 2023; 15 (713): eadi0336

    Abstract

    Regulatory agencies need to ensure the safety and equity of AI in biomedicine, and the time to do so is now.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.adi0336

    View details for PubMedID 37703349

  • Revise the UDDA to Align the Law with Practice through Neuro-Respiratory Criteria. Neurology Omelianchuk, A., Bernat, J., Caplan, A., Greer, D., Lazaridis, C., Lewis, A., Pope, T., Ross, L. F., Magnus, D. 1800

    Abstract

    Although the Uniform Determination of Death Act (UDDA) has served as a model statute for 40 years, there is a growing recognition that the law must be updated. One issue being considered by the Uniform Law Commission's Drafting Committee to revise the UDDA is whether the text "all functions of the entire brain, including the brainstem" should be changed. Some argue that the absence of diabetes insipidus indicates that some brain functioning continues in many individuals who otherwise meet the "accepted medical standards" like the American Academy of Neurology's. The concern is that the legal criteria and the medical standards used to determine death by neurological criteria are not aligned. We argue for the revision of the UDDA to more accurately specify legal criteria which align with the medical standards: brain injury leading to permanent loss of a) the capacity for consciousness, b) the ability to breathe spontaneously, and c) brainstem reflexes. We term these criteria "neuro-respiratory criteria" and show that they are well-supported in the literature for physiological and social reasons justifying their use in the law.

    View details for DOI 10.1212/WNL.0000000000200024

    View details for PubMedID 35078943

John and Terry Levin Family Professor of Medicine and Professor, by courtesy, of Emergency Medicine and of Medicine

Publications

  • Thalamic deep brain stimulation in traumatic brain injury: a phase 1, randomized feasibility study. Nature medicine Schiff, N. D., Giacino, J. T., Butson, C. R., Choi, E. Y., Baker, J. L., O'Sullivan, K. P., Janson, A. P., Bergin, M., Bronte-Stewart, H. M., Chua, J., DeGeorge, L., Dikmen, S., Fogarty, A., Gerber, L. M., Krel, M., Maldonado, J., Radovan, M., Shah, S. A., Su, J., Temkin, N., Tourdias, T., Victor, J. D., Waters, A., Kolakowsky-Hayner, S. A., Fins, J. J., Machado, A. G., Rutt, B. K., Henderson, J. M. 2023

    Abstract

    Converging evidence indicates that impairments in executive function and information-processing speed limit quality of life and social reentry after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (msTBI). These deficits reflect dysfunction of frontostriatal networks for which the central lateral (CL) nucleus of the thalamus is a critical node. The primary objective of this feasibility study was to test the safety and efficacy of deep brain stimulation within the CL and the associated medial dorsal tegmental (CL/DTTm) tract.Six participants with msTBI, who were between 3 and 18 years post-injury, underwent surgery with electrode placement guided by imaging and subject-specific biophysical modeling to predict activation of the CL/DTTm tract. The primary efficacy measure was improvement in executive control indexed by processing speed on part B of the trail-making test.All six participants were safely implanted. Five participants completed the study and one was withdrawn for protocol non-compliance. Processing speed on part B of the trail-making test improved 15% to 52% from baseline, exceeding the 10% benchmark for improvement in all five cases.CL/DTTm deep brain stimulation can be safely applied and may improve executive control in patients with msTBI who are in the chronic phase of recovery.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02881151 .

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41591-023-02638-4

    View details for PubMedID 38049620

    View details for PubMedCentralID 8126422

  • Reliability and validity of the Spanish adaptation of the Stanford Proxy Test for Delirium (S-PTDsv) in two clinical Spanish speaking communities. Journal of the Academy of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry Sanndy, I., Alex, B., Matías, G., Luis, P., Eduardo, F., Pablo, A., Maldonado, J. R. 2023

    Abstract

    Delirium is the most prevalent neuropsychiatric syndrome experienced by patients admitted to inpatient clinical units, occurring in at least 20% of medically hospitalized patients and up to 85% of those admitted to critical care units. Although current guidelines recommend the implementation of universal prevention strategies, the use of management strategies largely depend on constant surveillance and screening. This allows for the timely diagnosis and the correction of its underlying causes and implementation of management strategies.It was to adapt and analyze the Spanish adaptation of the Stanford Proxy Test for Delirium (S-PTDsv) instrument for its use among Spanish-speaking populations. The S-PTD is an instrument consisting of 13 observational items to be completed by a clinician observer, usually the patient's nurse. The completion of the questionnaire takes about one minute and does not require the active participation of the person evaluated, which has important clinical advantages compared to other available instruments (e.g., the Confusion Assessment Method [CAM]).The psychometric properties of the S-PTDsv were evaluated in a population of 123 patients, using a quantitative, cross-sectional design. All subjects were over 18 years of age and hospitalized in various inpatient medico-surgical and Intensive care Unit services, either to the Barcelona Clinical Hospital (Barcelona, Spain) or the UC-Christus Health Network Clinical Hospital (Santiago, Chile, S.A.). The ultimate diagnosis of delirium was made by a member of the Psychiatry Consult Service, by means of an independent neuropsychiatric evaluation based on the 5th Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria, published in 2013 and is the latest version of the diagnostic manual. All study tests were performed by study personnel who were blinded to each other's test results and within an hour of each other.In the ROC analysis, the S-PTDsv demonstrated excellent classification qualities when compared with the DSM-5, as the classification gold-standard. Using a cut-off point of ≥3, the S-PTDsv had a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 97%. The AUC indicator was equal to 0.95, suggesting the S-PTDsv has an excellent overall performance in accurately identifying cases of Delirium. Accordingly, the S-PTDsv's positive predictive value (PPV) = 0.93, and the negative predictive value (NPV) = 0.97. The internal reliability measured with Cronbach's Alpha was 0.96. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a one-dimensional structure with high loadings (>0.72), demonstrating that all items similarly contribute to the total diagnostic dimension, suggesting adequate construct validity. This provided evidence of convergent validity.The performance of the S-PTDsv, as compared to a blinded neuropsychiatric assessment based on DSM-5, indicates that it is an effective instrument for the detection of Delirium, in the Spanish speaking populations. These results are comparable and consistent with previously published studies in the English language version.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaclp.2023.09.004

    View details for PubMedID 37806639

  • Bilateral Globus Pallidus Injury in the Setting of Lithium Toxicity: A Case Report JOURNAL OF THE ACADEMY OF CONSULTATION-LIAISON PSYCHIATRY Gunther, M., Jiang, S., Maldonado, J. R. 2023; 64 (5): 484-485

    View details for Web of Science ID 001073580400001

    View details for PubMedID 37689462

Assistant Professor (Research) of Pediatrics (Biomedical Ethics)

Publications

  • Dimensions of Research-Participant Interaction: Engagement is Not a Replacement for Consent. The Journal of law, medicine & ethics : a journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics Shearer, E., Martinez, N., Magnus, D. 2020; 48 (1): 183–84

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1073110520917008

    View details for PubMedID 32342787

  • What Are Important Ethical Implications of Using Facial Recognition Technology in Health Care? AMA journal of ethics Martinez-Martin, N. 2019; 21 (2): E180–187

    Abstract

    Applications of facial recognition technology (FRT) in health care settings have been developed to identify and monitor patients as well as to diagnose genetic, medical, and behavioral conditions. The use of FRT in health care suggests the importance of informed consent, data input and analysis quality, effective communication about incidental findings, and potential influence on patient-clinician relationships. Privacy and data protection are thought to present challenges for the use of FRT for health applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/amajethics.2019.180

    View details for PubMedID 30794128

  • Data mining for health: staking out the ethical territory of digital phenotyping NPJ DIGITAL MEDICINE Martinez-Martin, N., Insel, T. R., Dagum, P., Greely, H. T., Cho, M. K. 2018; 1
Assistant Professor (Research) of Pediatrics (Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics)

Publications

  • Including multiracial individuals is crucial for race, ethnicity and ancestry frameworks in genetics and genomics. Nature genetics Martschenko, D. O., Wand, H., Young, J. L., Wojcik, G. L. 2023

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41588-023-01394-y

    View details for PubMedID 37202500

  • The Value of Intersectionality for Genomic Research on Human Behavior. Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics Matthews, L. J., Martschenko, D. O., Sabatello, M. 2023: 100860

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.gim.2023.100860

    View details for PubMedID 37092536

  • Wrestling with Public Input on an Ethical Analysis of Scientific Research. The Hastings Center report Martschenko, D. O., Callier, S. L., Garrison, N. A., Lee, S. S., Turley, P., Meyer, M. N., Parens, E. 2023; 53 Suppl 1: S50-S65

    Abstract

    Bioethicists frequently call for empirical researchers to engage participants and community members in their research, but don't themselves typically engage community members in their normative research. In this article, we describe an effort to include members of the public in normative discussions about the risks, potential benefits, and ethical responsibilities of social and behavioral genomics (SBG) research. We reflect on what might-and might not- be gained from engaging the public in normative scholarship and on lessons learned about public perspectives on the risks and potential benefits of SBG research and the responsible conduct and communication of such research. We also provide procedural lessons for others in bioethics who are interested in engaging members of the public in their research.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/hast.1478

    View details for PubMedID 37079856

Adjunct Professor, Genetics
The Colleen and Robert Haas Professor in Medicine and Biomedical Ethics, Emeritus

Publications

  • Advertising, patient decision making, and self-referral for computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging ARCHIVES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Illes, J., Kann, D., Karetsky, K., Letourneau, P., Raffin, T. A., Schraedley-Desmond, P., Koenig, B. A., Atlas, S. W. 2004; 164 (22): 2415-2419

    Abstract

    Self-referred imaging is one of the latest health care services to be marketed directly to consumers. Most aspects of these services are unregulated, and little is known about the messages in advertising used to attract potential consumers. We conducted a detailed analysis of print advertisements and informational brochures for self-referred imaging with respect to themes, content, accuracy, and emotional valence.Forty print advertisements from US newspapers around the country and 20 informational brochures were analyzed by 2 independent raters according to 7 major themes: health care technology; emotion, empowerment, and assurance; incentives; limited supporting evidence; popular appeal; statistics; and images. The Fisher exact test was used to identify significant differences in information content.Both the advertisements and the brochures emphasized health care and technology information and provided assurances of good health and incentives to self-refer. These materials also encouraged consumers to seek further information from company resources; virtually none referred to noncomplying sources of information or to the risks of having a scan. Images of people commonly portrayed European Americans. We found statistical differences between newspaper advertisements and mailed brochures for references to "prevalence of disease" (P<.001), "death" (P<.003), and "radiation" (P<.001). Statements lacking clear scientific evidence were identified in 38% of the advertisements (n = 15) and 25% of the brochures (n = 5).Direct-to-consumer marketing of self-referred imaging services, in both print advertisements and informational brochures, fails to provide prospective consumers with comprehensive balanced information vital to informed autonomous decision making. Professional guidelines and oversight for advertising and promotion of these services are needed.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225701900003

    View details for PubMedID 15596630

  • Discovery and disclosure of incidental findings in neuroimaging research 33rd Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Neuroscience Illes, J., Kirschen, M. P., Karetsky, K., Kelly, M., Saha, A., Desmond, J. E., Raffin, T. A., Glover, G. H., Atlas, S. W. JOHN WILEY & SONS INC. 2004: 743–47

    Abstract

    To examine different protocols for handling incidental findings on brain research MRIs, and provide a platform for establishing formal discussions of related ethical and policy issues.Corresponding authors identified from a database of peer-reviewed publications in 1991-2002 involving functional MRI (fMRI), alone or in combination with other imaging modalities, were invited to participate in this web-based survey. The survey asked questions regarding knowledge and handling of incidental findings, as well as characteristics of the scanning environment, training required, IRB protocol requirements, and neuroradiologist involvement.Seventy-four investigators who conduct MRI studies in the United States and abroad responded. Eighty-two percent (54/66) reported discovering incidental findings in their studies, such as arteriovenous malformations, brain tumors, and developmental abnormalities. Substantial variability was found in the procedures for handling and communicating findings to subjects, neuroradiologist involvement, personnel permitted to operate equipment, and training.Guidelines for minimum and optimum standards for detecting and communicating incidental findings on brain MRI research are needed.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.20180

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224762700001

    View details for PubMedID 15503329

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1506385

  • Chylothorax after heart/lung transplantation JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION Ziedalski, T. M., Raffin, T. A., Sze, D. Y., Mitchell, J. D., Robbins, R. C., Theodore, J., Faul, J. L. 2004; 23 (5): 627-631

    Abstract

    Chylothorax is a potentially serious complication of lung and heart-lung transplantation. This article describes the clinical course of chylothorax in 3 heart-lung allograft recipients. We discuss management options, including dietary modifications, octreotide infusion, thoracic duct ligation and embolization, and surgical pleurodesis. In addition, we describe the novel use of aminocaproic acid to reduce lymph flow. We propose a multidisciplinary approach for the management of chylothorax that includes both medical and surgical options.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221393700018

    View details for PubMedID 15135382

Member, Maternal & Child Health Research Institute (MCHRI)

Publications

  • Automating Justice: An Ethical Responsibility of Computational Bioethics. The American journal of bioethics : AJOB Rahimzadeh, V., Lawson, J., Baek, J., Dove, E. S. 2022; 22 (7): 30-33

    View details for DOI 10.1080/15265161.2022.2075051

    View details for PubMedID 35737496

  • Regulatory Angels and Technology Demons? Making Sense of Evolving Realities in Health Data Privacy for the Digital Age. The American journal of bioethics : AJOB Rahimzadeh, V. 2022; 22 (7): 68-70

    View details for DOI 10.1080/15265161.2022.2075981

    View details for PubMedID 35737504

  • Leveraging Algorithms to Improve Decision-Making Workflows for Genomic Data Access and Management. Biopreservation and biobanking Rahimzadeh, V., Lawson, J., Rushton, G., Dove, E. S. 2022

    Abstract

    Studies on the ethics of automating clinical or research decision making using artificial intelligence and other algorithmic tools abound. Less attention has been paid, however, to the scope for, and ethics of, automating decision making within regulatory apparatuses governing the access, use, and exchange of data involving humans for research. In this article, we map how the binary logic flows and real-time capabilities of automated decision support (ADS) systems may be leveraged to accelerate one rate-limiting step in scientific discovery: data access management. We contend that improved auditability, consistency, and efficiency of the data access request process using ADS systems have the potential to yield fairer outcomes in requests for data largely sourced from biospecimens and biobanked samples. This procedural justice rationale reinforces a broader set of participant and data subject rights that data access committees (DACs) indirectly protect. DACs protect the rights of citizens to benefit from science by bringing researchers closer to the data they need to advance that science. DACs also protect the informational dignities of individuals and communities by ensuring the data being accessed are used in ways consistent with participant values. We discuss the development of the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health Data Use Ontology standard as a test case of ADS for genomic data access management specifically, and we synthesize relevant ethical, legal, and social challenges to its implementation in practice. We conclude with an agenda of future research needed to thoughtfully advance strategies for computational governance that endeavor to instill public trust in, and maximize the scientific value of, health-related human data across data types, environments, and user communities.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/bio.2022.0042

    View details for PubMedID 35772014

This profile is not available
Professor of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Emeritum

Publications

Professor of Medicine (Primary Care & Population Health) and, by courtesy, of Pediatrics (Stanford Center of Biomedical Ethics)

Publications

  • Genomics Research with Undiagnosed Children: Ethical Challenges at the Boundaries of Research and Clinical Care JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Halley, M. C., Young, J. L., Tang, C., Mintz, K. T., Lucas-Griffin, S., Maghiro, A., Ashley, E. A., Tabor, H. K., Undiagnosed Diseases Network 2023; 261
  • How are students learning to care for people with disabilities?: exploring the curriculum design of a sample of disability electives offered by US health professions schools. Disability and rehabilitation Clarke, L., Tabor, H. K., Gisondi, M. A. 2023: 1-11

    Abstract

    PURPOSE: There is an increased demand among health professions students for disability-focused training. We aimed to characterize the development and structure of a sample of disability electives offered at health professions schools in the United States.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey was developed to capture data on the curriculum design of disability electives offered at health professions schools across the United States. The primary outcome measures were elective development, elective structure, learner and instructor demographics, disability inclusion, and evaluation methodologies. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted, during which the survey was distributed to relevant professional societies focused on disability advocacy within healthcare.RESULTS: Data were collected on fifteen disability electives. Most electives were developed within the past four years, and many electives were initiated by students. The structure, duration, and evaluation methodology of electives were highly variable. Most electives took the form of a longer didactic-based course or a shorter clinical experience. All electives involved people with disabilities in some capacity.CONCLUSIONS: Disability electives fill an important gap in disability education at some health professions schools. Elective directors should have an increased focus on assessing student learning and ensuring that people with disabilities are involved in elective design and instruction.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/09638288.2023.2254694

    View details for PubMedID 37671804

  • Genomics Research with Undiagnosed Children: Ethical Challenges at the Boundaries of Research and Clinical Care. The Journal of pediatrics Halley, M. C., Young, J. L., Tang, C., Mintz, K. T., Lucas-Griffin, S., Maghiro, A. S., Ashley, E. A., Tabor, H. K. 2023: 113537

    Abstract

    To explore the perspectives of parents of undiagnosed children enrolled in genomic diagnosis research regarding their motivations for enrolling their children, their understanding of the potential burdens and benefits, and the extent to which their experiences ultimately aligned with or diverged from their original expectations.In-depth interviews were conducted with parents, audio-recorded and transcribed. A structured codebook was applied to each transcript, after which iterative memoing was used to identify themes.Fifty-four parents participated, including 17 (31.5%) whose child received a diagnosis through research. Themes describing parents' expectations and experiences of genomic diagnosis research included: 1) the extent to which parents' motivations for participation focused on their hope that it would directly benefit their child; 2) the ways in which parents' frustrations regarding the research process confused the dual clinical and research goals of their participation; and 3) the limited clinical benefits parents ultimately experienced for their children.Our results suggest that parents of undiagnosed children seeking enrollment in genomic diagnosis research are at risk of a form of therapeutic misconception - in this case, diagnostic misconception. These findings indicate the need to examine the processes and procedures associated with this research in order to appropriately communicate and balance the potential burdens and benefits of study participation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2023.113537

    View details for PubMedID 37271495

This profile is not available