Publications

SCBE faculty and fellows publish often in leading journals. SCBE is also home to the editorial office of the American Journal of Bioethics (AJOB).

 

Associate Professor of Medicine (Primary Care and Population Health) and of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine

Publications

  • Palliative Care Service Utilization and Advance Care Planning for Adult Glioblastoma Patients: A Systematic Review Cancers Wu, A., Ruiz Colón, G., Aslakson, R., Pollom, E., Patel, C. 2021; 13 (12)

    Abstract

    Glioblastoma (GBM) has a median overall survival of 16-21 months. As patients with GBM suffer concurrently from terminal cancer and a disease with progressive neurocognitive decline, advance care planning (ACP) and palliative care (PC) are critical. We conducted a systematic review exploring published literature on the prevalence of ACP, end-of-life (EOL) services utilization (including PC services), and experiences among adults with GBM. We searched from database inception until 20 December 2020. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews guidelines were followed. Included studies were assessed for quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The 16 articles were all nonrandomized studies conducted in six countries with all but two published in 2014 or later. ACP documentation varied from 4-55%, PC referral was pursued in 39-40% of cases, and hospice referrals were made for 66-76% of patients. Hospitalizations frequently occurred at the EOL with 20-56% of patients spending over 25% of their overall survival time hospitalized. Many GBM patients do not pursue ACP or have access to PC. There is a dearth of focused and high-quality studies on ACP, PC, and hospice use among adults with GBM. Prospective studies that address these and additional aspects related to EOL care, such as healthcare costs and inpatient supportive care needs, are needed.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/cancers13122867

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8228109

  • Preoperative Conversations About Postoperative Risks, Outcomes, and Quality of Life-Time to Start Thinking Outside the Box. JAMA network open Yefimova, M., Aslakson, R. A. 2020; 3 (11): e2024048

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.24048

    View details for PubMedID 33180125

  • Church leaders and parishioners speak out about the role of the church in advance care planning and end-of-life care. Palliative & supportive care Sloan, D. H., Gray, T. F., Harris, D., Peters, T., Belcher, A., Aslakson, R., Bowie, J. 2020: 1–7

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the increased focus on improving advance care planning (ACP) in African Americans through community partnerships, little published research focused on the role of the African American church in this effort. This study examines parishioner perceptions and beliefs about the role of the church in ACP and end-of-life care (EOLC).METHOD: Qualitative interviews were completed with 25 church members (parishioners n = 15, church leader n = 10). The coding of data entailed a direct content analysis approach incorporating team experts for final themes.RESULTS: Seven themes emerged: (1) church role on end-of-life, (2) advocacy for health and well-being, (3) health literacy in EOLC, (4) lay health training on ACP and EOLC, (5) church recognized as a trusted source, (6) use of church ministries to sustain programs related to ACP and EOLC, and (7) community resources for EOLC needs.SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: The church has a central role in the African American Community. These findings suggest that involving African American churches in ACP and EOLC training can have a positive effect on facilitating planning and care during illness, dying, and death for their congregants.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S1478951520000966

    View details for PubMedID 33118897

Clinical Associate Professor, Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine

Publications

  • Elective Surgery and COVID-19: A Framework for the Untested Patient. Annals of surgery Lu, A. C., Burgart, A. M. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SLA.0000000000004474

    View details for PubMedID 32889879

  • Parents Demand and Teenager Refuses Epidural Anesthesia. Pediatrics Berkowitz, I., Burgart, A., Truog, R. D., Mancuso, T. J., Char, D., Lantos, J. D. 2020

    Abstract

    A 15-year-old girl is scheduled to undergo an upper lobectomy to debulk metastatic Ewing sarcoma. The anesthesiologist recommended placement of a thoracic epidural catheter to provide postoperative analgesia. The patient did not want a needle to be placed near her spine. She was terrified that the procedure would be painful and that it might paralyze her. Although the anesthesiologist reassured her that sedation and local anesthesia would make the procedure comfortable, she remained vehemently opposed to the epidural procedure. The parents spoke privately to the anesthesiologist and asked for placement of the epidural after she was asleep. They firmly believed that this would provide optimal postoperative analgesia and thus would be in her best interest. Experts discuss the pros and cons of siding with the patient or parents.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2019-3295

    View details for PubMedID 32398328

  • The opioid crisis should lead pediatric anesthesiologists to a broader vision of opioid stewardship. Paediatric anaesthesia Burgart, A. M., Char, D. 2019; 29 (11): 1078–80

    View details for DOI 10.1111/pan.13730

    View details for PubMedID 31677337

Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine (Pediatric)

Publications

  • Parental Attitudes Toward Clinical Genomic Sequencing in Children With Critical Cardiac Disease. Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies Gal, D. B., Deuitch, N., Lee, S. S., Simon, R. T., Char, D. S. 2021

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVES: Through improving diagnostics and prognostics genomic sequencing promises to significantly impact clinical decisions for children with critical cardiac disease. Little is known about how families of children with critical cardiac disease perceive the impact of genomic sequencing on clinical care choices.DESIGN: Qualitative interview study.SETTING: A high-volume, tertiary pediatric heart center.SUBJECTS: Families of children with critical cardiac disease.INTERVENTIONS: None.MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Thematic analysis of interview response content. Thirty-five families were interviewed. Three themes emerged: 1) benefits versus challenges of having genomic sequencing results, and 2) fears of clinical applications of genomic sequencing, and 3) nonclinical fears related to genomic sequencing. Participants struggled with perceived uses of genomic sequencing-derived knowledge. They described comfort in foreknowledge of their child's likely disease course but articulated significant apprehension around participating in care decisions with limited knowledge of genomic sequencing, genomic sequencing uses to inform clinical resource rationing decisions, and genomic sequencing uses by third parties impacting financial pressures families experience caring for a child with critical cardiac disease.CONCLUSIONS: Families' perceptions of genomic sequencing uses in critical cardiac disease appear to strain their overall trust in the health system. Erosion of trust is concerning because the potential of genomic sequencing in critical cardiac disease will be unrealized if families are unwilling to undergo genomic sequencing, let alone to participate in the ongoing research needed to link genomic sequencing variants to clinical outcomes. Our findings may have implications for genomic sequencing use in children with other critical, high-acuity diseases.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0000000000002669

    View details for PubMedID 33591072

  • Compassionate Deactivation of Pediatric Ventricular Assist Devices: A Review of 14 Cases. Journal of pain and symptom management Hollander, S. A., Kaufman, B. D., Bui, C. n., Gregori, B. n., Murray, J. M., Sacks, L. n., Ryan, K. R., Ma, M. n., Rosenthal, D. N., Char, D. n. 2021

    Abstract

    Compassionate deactivation (CD) of ventricular assist device (VAD) support is a recognized option for children when the burden of therapy outweighs the benefits.To describe the prevalence, indications, and outcomes of CD of children supported by VADs at the end of life.Review of cases of CD at our institution between 2011-2020. To distinguish CD from other situations where VAD support is discontinued, patients were excluded from the study if they died during resuscitation (including ECMO), experienced brain or circulatory death prior to deactivation, or experienced a non-survivable brain injury likely to result in imminent death regardless of VAD status.Of 24 deaths on VAD, 14 (58%) were CD. Median age was 5.7 (IQR 0.6, 11.6) years; 6 (43%) had congenital heart disease; 4 (29%) were on a device that can be used outside of the hospital. CD occurred after 40 (IQR: 26, 75) days of support; none while active transplant candidates. CD discussions were initiated by the caregiver in 6 (43%) cases, with the remainder initiated by a medical provider. Reasons for CD were multifactorial, including end-organ injury, infection, and stroke. CD occurred with endotracheal extubation and/or discontinuation of inotropes in 12 (86%) cases, and death occurred within 10 (IQR: 4, 23) minutes of CD.CD is the mode of death in more than half of our VAD non-survivors and is pursued for reasons primarily related to noncardiac events. Caregivers and providers both initiate CD discussions. Ventilatory and inotropic support is often withdrawn at time of CD with ensuing death.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2021.01.125

    View details for PubMedID 33910026

  • A Framework to Evaluate Ethical Considerations with ML-HCA Applications-Valuable, Even Necessary, but Never Comprehensive. The American journal of bioethics : AJOB Char, D., Abramoff, M., Feudtner, C. 2020; 20 (11): W6–W10

    View details for DOI 10.1080/15265161.2020.1827695

    View details for PubMedID 33103985

Professor (Research) of Pediatrics (Center for Biomedical Ethics) and of Medicine (Primary Care and Polulation Health)

Publications

  • A Typology of Existing Machine Learning-Based Predictive Analytic Tools Focused on Reducing Costs and Improving Quality in Health Care: Systematic Search and Content Analysis. Journal of medical Internet research Nichol, A. A., Batten, J. N., Halley, M. C., Axelrod, J. K., Sankar, P. L., Cho, M. K. 2021; 23 (6): e26391

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Considerable effort has been devoted to the development of artificial intelligence, including machine learning-based predictive analytics (MLPA) for use in health care settings. The growth of MLPA could be fueled by payment reforms that hold health care organizations responsible for providing high-quality, cost-effective care. Policy analysts, ethicists, and computer scientists have identified unique ethical and regulatory challenges from the use of MLPA in health care. However, little is known about the types of MLPA health care products available on the market today or their stated goals.OBJECTIVE: This study aims to better characterize available MLPA health care products, identifying and characterizing claims about products recently or currently in use in US health care settings that are marketed as tools to improve health care efficiency by improving quality of care while reducing costs.METHODS: We conducted systematic database searches of relevant business news and academic research to identify MLPA products for health care efficiency meeting our inclusion and exclusion criteria. We used content analysis to generate MLPA product categories and characterize the organizations marketing the products.RESULTS: We identified 106 products and characterized them based on publicly available information in terms of the types of predictions made and the size, type, and clinical training of the leadership of the companies marketing them. We identified 5 categories of predictions made by MLPA products based on publicly available product marketing materials: disease onset and progression, treatment, cost and utilization, admissions and readmissions, and decompensation and adverse events.CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide a foundational reference to inform the analysis of specific ethical and regulatory challenges arising from the use of MLPA to improve health care efficiency.

    View details for DOI 10.2196/26391

    View details for PubMedID 34156338

  • Genetic counseling and testing for Asian Americans: a systematic review. Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics Young, J. L., Mak, J., Stanley, T., Bass, M., Cho, M. K., Tabor, H. K. 2021

    Abstract

    PURPOSE: Asian Americans have been understudied in the literature on genetic and genomic services. The current study systematically identified, evaluated, and summarized findings from relevant qualitative and quantitative studies on genetic health care for Asian Americans.METHODS: A search of five databases (1990 to 2018) returned 8,522 unique records. After removing duplicates, abstract/title screening, and full text review, 47 studies met inclusion criteria. Data from quantitative studies were converted into "qualitized data" and pooled together with thematic data from qualitative studies to produce a set of integrated findings.RESULTS: Synthesis of results revealed that (1) Asian Americans are under-referred but have high uptake for genetic services, (2) linguistic/communication challenges were common and Asian Americans expected more directive genetic counseling, and (3) Asian Americans' family members were involved in testing decisions, but communication of results and risk information to family members was lower than other racial groups.CONCLUSION: This study identified multiple barriers to genetic counseling, testing, and care for Asian Americans, as well as gaps in the research literature. By focusing on these barriers and filling these gaps, clinical genetic approaches can be tailored to meet the needs of diverse patient groups, particularly those of Asian descent.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41436-021-01169-y

    View details for PubMedID 33972720

  • Taking an anti-racist posture in scientific publications in human genetics and genomics Brothers, K., Bennett, R., Cho, M. ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE. 2021: S299-S300
Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Biomedical Ethics
Deane F. and Kate Edelman Johnson Professor of Law and, Professor, by courtesy, of Genetics

Publications

  • Neuroscience and the Criminal Justice System ANNUAL REVIEW OF CRIMINOLOGY, VOL 2 Greely, H. T., Farahany, N. A., Petersilia, J., Sampson, R. J. 2019; 2: 451–71
  • Neuroethics Guiding Principles for the NIH BRAIN Initiative. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience Greely, H. T., Grady, C., Ramos, K. M., Chiong, W., Eberwine, J., Farahany, N. A., Johnson, L. S., Hyman, B. T., Hyman, S. E., Rommelfanger, K. S., Serrano, E. E. 2018; 38 (50): 10586–88

    View details for DOI 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2077-18.2018

    View details for PubMedID 30541767

  • The ethics of experimenting with human brain tissue. Nature Farahany, N. A., Greely, H. T., Hyman, S. n., Koch, C. n., Grady, C. n., Pașca, S. P., Sestan, N. n., Arlotta, P. n., Bernat, J. L., Ting, J. n., Lunshof, J. E., Iyer, E. P., Hyun, I. n., Capestany, B. H., Church, G. M., Huang, H. n., Song, H. n. 2018; 556 (7702): 429–32

    View details for DOI 10.1038/d41586-018-04813-x

    View details for PubMedID 29691509

Research Scholar, School of Medicine - Biomedical Ethics

Publications

  • Barriers and facilitators to mobile health and active surveillance use among older adults with skin disease. Health expectations : an international journal of public participation in health care and health policy Johnson, A., Shukla, N., Halley, M., Nava, V., Budaraju, J., Zhang, L., Linos, E. 2021

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the adoption of telemedicine, including teledermatology. Monitoring skin lesions using teledermatology may become increasingly important for several skin diseases, including low-risk skin cancers. The purpose of this study was to describe the key factors that could serve as barriers or facilitators to skin disease monitoring using mobile health technology (mHealth) in older adults.METHODS: Older adult dermatology patients 65years or older and their caregivers who have seen a dermatologist in the last 18months were interviewed and surveyed between December 2019 and July 2020. The purpose of these interviews was to better understand attitudes, beliefs and behaviours that could serve as barriers and facilitators to the use of mHealth and active surveillance to monitor low-risk skin cancers.RESULTS: A total of 33 interviews leading to 6022 unique excerpts yielded 8 factors, or themes, that could serve as barriers, facilitators or both to mHealth and active surveillance. We propose an integrated conceptual framework that highlights the interaction of these themes at both the patient and provider level, including care environment, support systems and personal values.DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary findings reveal factors influencing patient acceptance of active surveillance in dermatology, such as changes to the patient-provider interaction and alignment with personal values. These factors were also found to influence adoption of mHealth interventions. Given such overlap, it is essential to address barriers and facilitators from both domains when designing a new dermatology active surveillance approach with novel mHealth technology.PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: The patients included in this study were participants during the data collection process. Members of the Stanford Healthcare and Denver Tech Dermatology health-care teams aided in the recruitment phase of the data collection process.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/hex.13229

    View details for PubMedID 34190397

  • A Typology of Existing Machine Learning-Based Predictive Analytic Tools Focused on Reducing Costs and Improving Quality in Health Care: Systematic Search and Content Analysis. Journal of medical Internet research Nichol, A. A., Batten, J. N., Halley, M. C., Axelrod, J. K., Sankar, P. L., Cho, M. K. 2021; 23 (6): e26391

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Considerable effort has been devoted to the development of artificial intelligence, including machine learning-based predictive analytics (MLPA) for use in health care settings. The growth of MLPA could be fueled by payment reforms that hold health care organizations responsible for providing high-quality, cost-effective care. Policy analysts, ethicists, and computer scientists have identified unique ethical and regulatory challenges from the use of MLPA in health care. However, little is known about the types of MLPA health care products available on the market today or their stated goals.OBJECTIVE: This study aims to better characterize available MLPA health care products, identifying and characterizing claims about products recently or currently in use in US health care settings that are marketed as tools to improve health care efficiency by improving quality of care while reducing costs.METHODS: We conducted systematic database searches of relevant business news and academic research to identify MLPA products for health care efficiency meeting our inclusion and exclusion criteria. We used content analysis to generate MLPA product categories and characterize the organizations marketing the products.RESULTS: We identified 106 products and characterized them based on publicly available information in terms of the types of predictions made and the size, type, and clinical training of the leadership of the companies marketing them. We identified 5 categories of predictions made by MLPA products based on publicly available product marketing materials: disease onset and progression, treatment, cost and utilization, admissions and readmissions, and decompensation and adverse events.CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide a foundational reference to inform the analysis of specific ethical and regulatory challenges arising from the use of MLPA to improve health care efficiency.

    View details for DOI 10.2196/26391

    View details for PubMedID 34156338

  • "Doctors can read about it, they can know about it, but they've never lived with it": How parents use social media throughout the diagnostic odyssey. Journal of genetic counseling Deuitch, N. T., Beckman, E., Halley, M. C., Young, J. L., Reuter, C. M., Kohler, J., Bernstein, J. A., Wheeler, M. T., Undiagnosed Diseases Network, Ormond, K. E., Tabor, H. K. 2021

    Abstract

    Parents of children with undiagnosed conditions struggle to obtain information about how to treat and support their children. It can be particularly challenging to find communities and other parents who share their experiences and can provide emotional and informational support. This study sought to characterize how parents use social media, both throughout the diagnostic odyssey and post-diagnosis, to meet their informational, social, and emotional support needs. We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with 14 parents from the Stanford site of the Undiagnosed Diseases Network (UDN), including five whose children had received a diagnosis through study participation. Interview recordings were analyzed using inductive, team-based coding and thematic analysis based in grounded theory using Dedoose qualitative analysis software. Through this process, we identified four key themes related to social media use. First, parents struggled to find the "right" community, often seeking out groups of similar patients based on symptoms or similar conditions. Second, though they found much valuable information through social media about caring for their child, they also struggled to interpret the relevance of the information to their own child's condition. Third, the social support and access to other patients' and families' lived experiences were described as both highly valued and emotionally challenging, particularly in the case of poor outcomes for similar families. Finally, parents expressed the need to balance concerns about their child's privacy with the value of transparency and data sharing for diagnosis. Our results suggest that the needs and experiences of undiagnosed patients and families differ from those with diagnosed diseases and highlight the need for support in best utilizing social media resources at different stages of the diagnostic odyssey.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jgc4.1438

    View details for PubMedID 34096130

Clinical Associate Professor, Medicine - Primary Care and Population Health

Publications

  • A framework for making predictive models useful in practice. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA Jung, K., Kashyap, S., Avati, A., Harman, S., Shaw, H., Li, R., Smith, M., Shum, K., Javitz, J., Vetteth, Y., Seto, T., Bagley, S. C., Shah, N. H. 2020

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact of factors in healthcare delivery on the net benefit of triggering an Advanced Care Planning (ACP) workflow based on predictions of 12-month mortality.MATERIALS AND METHODS: We built a predictive model of 12-month mortality using electronic health record data and evaluated the impact of healthcare delivery factors on the net benefit of triggering an ACP workflow based on the models' predictions. Factors included nonclinical reasons that make ACP inappropriate: limited capacity for ACP, inability to follow up due to patient discharge, and availability of an outpatient workflow to follow up on missed cases. We also quantified the relative benefits of increasing capacity for inpatient ACP versus outpatient ACP.RESULTS: Work capacity constraints and discharge timing can significantly reduce the net benefit of triggering the ACP workflow based on a model's predictions. However, the reduction can be mitigated by creating an outpatient ACP workflow. Given limited resources to either add capacity for inpatient ACP versus developing outpatient ACP capability, the latter is likely to provide more benefit to patient care.DISCUSSION: The benefit of using a predictive model for identifying patients for interventions is highly dependent on the capacity to execute the workflow triggered by the model. We provide a framework for quantifying the impact of healthcare delivery factors and work capacity constraints on achieved benefit.CONCLUSION: An analysis of the sensitivity of the net benefit realized by a predictive model triggered clinical workflow to various healthcare delivery factors is necessary for making predictive models useful in practice.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/jamia/ocaa318

    View details for PubMedID 33355350

  • Variation in the design of Do Not Resuscitate orders and other code status options: a multi-institutional qualitative study. BMJ quality & safety Batten, J. N., Blythe, J. A., Wieten, S., Cotler, M. P., Kayser, J. B., Porter-Williamson, K., Harman, S., Dzeng, E., Magnus, D. 2020

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: US hospitals typically provide a set of code status options that includes Full Code and Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) but often includes additional options. Although US hospitals differ in the design of code status options, this variation and its impacts have not been empirically studied.DESIGN AND METHODS: Multi-institutional qualitative study at 7 US hospitals selected for variability in geographical location, type of institution and design of code status options. We triangulated across three data sources (policy documents, code status ordering menus and in-depth physician interviews) to characterise the code status options available at each hospital. Using inductive qualitative methods, we investigated design differences in hospital code status options and the perceived impacts of these differences.RESULTS: The code status options at each hospital varied widely with regard to the number of code status options, the names and definitions of code status options, and the formatting and capabilities of code status ordering menus. DNR orders were named and defined differently at each hospital studied. We identified five key design characteristics that impact the function of a code status order. Each hospital's code status options were unique with respect to these characteristics, indicating that code status plays differing roles in each hospital. Physician participants perceived that the design of code status options shapes communication and decision-making practices about resuscitation and life-sustaining treatments, especially at the end of life. We identified four potential mechanisms through which this may occur: framing conversations, prompting decisions, shaping inferences and creating categories.CONCLUSIONS: There are substantive differences in the design of hospital code status options that may contribute to known variability in end-of-life care and treatment intensity among US hospitals. Our framework can be used to design hospital code status options or evaluate their function.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjqs-2020-011222

    View details for PubMedID 33082165

  • What If I Get Seriously Ill? A Virtual Workshop for Advance Care Planning During COVID-19. Journal of pain and symptom management Smith, G. M., Hui, F. A., Bleymaier, C. R., Bragg, A. R., Harman, S. M. 2020

    Abstract

    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has brought public attention to questions regarding the type of care individuals would want to receive in the event of becoming suddenly critically ill. Advance care planning (ACP) is one way to help individuals and families address these questions. However, social distancing, stay-at-home orders, and hospital visitor restrictions have raised new barriers to facilitating these conversations. Here, we describe the implementation and evaluation of a novel, public-facing, 2-part virtual ACP workshop. Participants were recruited through electronic communication, and evaluations were collected through surveys administered after each part of the workshop. We found that utilizing a virtual format allowed us to reach a large, geographically diverse audience. Participants were likely to recommend the workshop to friends and family. There was no change in advance care planning engagement between the post-session surveys between the first and second parts of the workshop.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.08.022

    View details for PubMedID 32835831

Sr Research Scholar, Pediatrics - Center for Biomedical Ethics Affiliate, School of Medicine - Biomedical Ethics

Publications

  • Excavating the Personal Genome: The Good Biocitizen in the Age of Precision Health HASTINGS CENTER REPORT Lee, S. 2020; 50: S54–S61

    Abstract

    The rise of genomic technologies has catalyzed shifts in the health care landscape through the commercialization of genome sequencing and testing services in the genomics marketplace. The development of consumer genomics into a growing array of information technologies aimed at collecting, curating, and broadly sharing personal data and biological materials reconstitutes the meaning of health and reframes patients into biocitizens. In this context, the good biocitizen is expected to assume personal responsibility for health through consumption of genomic information and acquiescence to public and private efforts at data surveillance and aggregation. These shifts raise fundamental questions about how competing interests of the public, the state, and corporate entities will be reconciled and what trade-offs are demanded for the promise of precision health.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/hast.1156

    View details for Web of Science ID 000543918300008

    View details for PubMedID 32597530

  • Obligations of the "Gift": Reciprocity and Responsibility in Precision Medicine. The American journal of bioethics : AJOB Lee, S. S. 2020: 1–15

    Abstract

    Precision medicine relies on data and biospecimens from participants who willingly offer their personal information on the promise that this act will ultimately result in knowledge that will improve human health. Drawing on anthropological framings of the "gift," this paper contextualizes participation in precision medicine as inextricable from social relationships and their ongoing ethical obligations. Going beyond altruism, reframing biospecimen and data collection in terms of socially regulated gift-giving recovers questions of responsibility and care. As opposed to conceiving participation in terms of donations that elide clinical labor critical to precision medicine, the gift metaphor underscores ethical commitments to reciprocity and responsibility. This demands confronting inequities in precision medicine, such as systemic bias and lack of affordability and access. A focus on justice in precision medicine that recognizes the sociality of the gift is a critical frontier for bioethics.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/15265161.2020.1851813

    View details for PubMedID 33325811

  • Integrating stakeholder feedback in translational genomics research: an ethnographic analysis of a study protocol's evolution. Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics Kraft, S. A., McMullen, C. n., Lindberg, N. M., Bui, D. n., Shipman, K. n., Anderson, K. n., Joseph, G. n., Duenas, D. M., Porter, K. M., Kauffman, T. L., Koomas, A. n., Ransom, C. L., Jackson, P. n., Goddard, K. A., Wilfond, B. S., Lee, S. S. 2020

    Abstract

    This study describes challenges faced while incorporating sometimes conflicting stakeholder feedback into study design and development of patient-facing materials for a translational genomics study aiming to reduce health disparities among diverse populations.We conducted an ethnographic analysis of study documents including summaries of patient advisory committee meetings and interviews, reflective field notes written by study team members, and correspondence with our institutional review board (IRB). Through this analysis, we identified cross-cutting challenges for incorporating stakeholder feedback into development of our recruitment, risk assessment, and informed consent processes and materials.Our analysis revealed three key challenges: (1) balancing precision and simplicity in the design of study materials, (2) providing clinical care within the research context, and (3) emphasizing potential study benefits versus risks and limitations.While involving patient stakeholders in study design and materials development can increase inclusivity and responsiveness to patient needs, patient feedback may conflict with that of content area experts on the research team and IRBs who are tasked with overseeing the research. Our analysis highlights the need for further empirical research about ethical challenges when incorporating patient feedback into study design, and for dialogue with genomic researchers and IRB representatives about these issues.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41436-020-0763-z

    View details for PubMedID 32089547

Thomas A. Raffin Professor in Medicine and Biomedical Ethics and Professor (Teaching) of Medicine (Primary Care and Population Health)

Publications

  • Variation in the design of Do Not Resuscitate orders and other code status options: a multi-institutional qualitative study. BMJ quality & safety Batten, J. N., Blythe, J. A., Wieten, S., Cotler, M. P., Kayser, J. B., Porter-Williamson, K., Harman, S., Dzeng, E., Magnus, D. 2020

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: US hospitals typically provide a set of code status options that includes Full Code and Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) but often includes additional options. Although US hospitals differ in the design of code status options, this variation and its impacts have not been empirically studied.DESIGN AND METHODS: Multi-institutional qualitative study at 7 US hospitals selected for variability in geographical location, type of institution and design of code status options. We triangulated across three data sources (policy documents, code status ordering menus and in-depth physician interviews) to characterise the code status options available at each hospital. Using inductive qualitative methods, we investigated design differences in hospital code status options and the perceived impacts of these differences.RESULTS: The code status options at each hospital varied widely with regard to the number of code status options, the names and definitions of code status options, and the formatting and capabilities of code status ordering menus. DNR orders were named and defined differently at each hospital studied. We identified five key design characteristics that impact the function of a code status order. Each hospital's code status options were unique with respect to these characteristics, indicating that code status plays differing roles in each hospital. Physician participants perceived that the design of code status options shapes communication and decision-making practices about resuscitation and life-sustaining treatments, especially at the end of life. We identified four potential mechanisms through which this may occur: framing conversations, prompting decisions, shaping inferences and creating categories.CONCLUSIONS: There are substantive differences in the design of hospital code status options that may contribute to known variability in end-of-life care and treatment intensity among US hospitals. Our framework can be used to design hospital code status options or evaluate their function.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjqs-2020-011222

    View details for PubMedID 33082165

  • "I don't want to be Henrietta Lacks": diverse patient perspectives on donating biospecimens for precision medicine research. Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics Lee, S. S., Cho, M. K., Kraft, S. A., Varsava, N., Gillespie, K., Ormond, K. E., Wilfond, B. S., Magnus, D. 2018

    Abstract

    PURPOSE: To determine whether patients distinguish between biospecimens and electronic health records (EHRs) when considering research participation to inform research protections.METHODS: We conducted 20 focus groups with individuals who identified as African American, Hispanic, Chinese, South Asian, and non-Hispanic white on the collection of biospecimens and EHR data for research.RESULTS: Our study found that many participants did not distinguish between biospecimens and EHR data. However, some participants identified specific concerns about biospecimens. These included the need for special care and respect for biospecimens due to enduring connections between the body and identity; the potential for unacceptable future research, specifically the prospect of human cloning; heightened privacy risks; and the potential for unjust corporate profiteering. Among those who distinguished biospecimens from EHR data, many supported separate consent processes and would limit their own participation to EHR data.CONCLUSION: Considering that the potential misuse of EHR data is as great as, if not greater than, for biospecimens, more research is needed to understand how attitudes differ between biospecimens and EHR data across diverse populations. Such research should explore mechanisms beyond consent that can address diverse values, perspectives, and misconceptions about sources of patient information to build trust in research relationships.

    View details for PubMedID 29887604

  • Implementing Machine Learning in Health Care - Addressing Ethical Challenges NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Char, D. S., Shah, N. H., Magnus, D. 2018; 378 (11): 981–83

    View details for PubMedID 29539284

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5962261

John and Terry Levin Family Professor of Medicine and Professor, by courtesy, of Emergency Medicine and of Medicine

Publications

  • The Psychosocial Assessment of Transplant Candidates: Internal Consistency, Interrater Reliability, and Content Validity of the Thai Version of the Stanford Integrated Psychosocial Assessment for Transplantation (SIPAT-Thai Version). Transplantation proceedings Thisayakorn, P., Sakunwetsa, D., Tangwongchai, S., Jirakran, K., Lolak, S., Maldonado, J. R. 2021

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Standardized pretransplant psychosocial assessment is critically needed in Thailand to optimize medical and psychosocial outcomes after transplantation. The Stanford Integrated Psychosocial Assessment for Transplantation (SIPAT) is a comprehensive and evidence-based tool that has demonstrated excellent reliability and predictive value in many psychosocial transplant studies. We translated the SIPAT into Thai and explored the validity and reliability of the SIPAT-Thai version among Thai transplant recipients.METHODS: We translated the original SIPAT into Thai following the World Health Organization's standard forward-backward translation procedure and then cross-sectionally assessed its validity and reliability in 110 Thai solid organ transplant candidates. The correlation between background data, total, and sectional scoring results of SIPAT-Thai were also analyzed.RESULTS: The SIPAT-Thai demonstrated moderate to good reliability, which was represented by internal consistency with a Cronbach alpha of .751 and interrater reliability with a kappa value at 0.767. The index of item-objective congruence value was 0.94, indicating good the content validity.CONCLUSIONS: The SIPAT-Thai was systematically translated and shown to have acceptable validity and a moderate to good reliability index. The use of the SIPAT-Thai would provide a standardized, evidence-based, and a more systematic pretransplant psychosocial evaluation process for transplant candidates in Thailand.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.transproceed.2021.02.013

    View details for PubMedID 33741202

  • Clinical Profile and Length of Hospital Stay in a Sample of Psychogeriatric Patients Referred to Consultation Liaison Psychiatric Unit. Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania) Barra, B. J., Varela, L. F., Maldonado, J. R., Calvo, P., Bastidas, A., Sanchez, R., Pintor, L. 2021; 57 (3)

    Abstract

    Background and objectives: There has been a recent increase in older patients admitted to general hospitals. A significant percentage of hospitalized older patients are ≥75 years old, which differ from the patients aged 65 to 74 years old in terms of functional status at patient discharge. This study aims to compare sociodemographic, clinical features, and factors associated with length of hospital stay in youngest-old and oldest-old populations of inpatients referred to the consultation liaison psychiatry unit. Material and methods: This is an observational, cross-sectional, retrospective, and comparative study. We obtained data from a sample of 1017 patients (≥65 years) admitted to a general hospital and referred from different services (medicine, surgery, etc.) to the consultation liaison psychiatry unit. The sample was divided into two groups of patients: youngest-old (65-74 years) and oldest-old (≥75 years). Psychiatric evaluations were performed while the patients were on wards at the hospital. Psychopharmacs were started as needed. A comparative analysis was carried out and predictive factors related to length of hospital stay were calculated. Results: The reference rate to consultation liaison psychiatry unit was 1.45% of the total older patients hospitalized. Our study demonstrates differences between the groups of older people: the oldest-old group were mainly female (p < 0.001), had more previous psychiatric diagnoses (p < 0.001), physical disabilities (p = 0.02), and neurocognitive disorders (p < 0.001), they used more antipsychotics (p < 0.001), and more frequently had a discharge disposition to a nursing home (p = 0.036). The presence of physical disability (beta = 0.07, p < 0.001) and logtime to referral to consultation liaison psychiatry unit (beta = 0.58, p < 0.001) were associated with increased length of hospital stay. Conclusions: Youngest-old and oldest-old people should be considered as two different types of patients when we consider clinical features. The time to referral to consultation liaison psychiatry unit seems to be a relevant factor associated with length of hospital stay.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/medicina57030256

    View details for PubMedID 33799510

  • COVID-19-Associated Hyperactive Intensive Care Unit Delirium With Proposed Pathophysiology and Treatment: A Case Report PSYCHOSOMATICS Sher, Y., Rabkin, B., Maldonado, J. R., Mohabir, P. 2020; 61 (5): 544–50
Assistant Professor (Research) of Pediatrics (Biomedical Ethics)

Publications

  • Dimensions of Research-Participant Interaction: Engagement is Not a Replacement for Consent. The Journal of law, medicine & ethics : a journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics Shearer, E., Martinez, N., Magnus, D. 2020; 48 (1): 183–84

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1073110520917008

    View details for PubMedID 32342787

  • What Are Important Ethical Implications of Using Facial Recognition Technology in Health Care? AMA journal of ethics Martinez-Martin, N. 2019; 21 (2): E180–187

    Abstract

    Applications of facial recognition technology (FRT) in health care settings have been developed to identify and monitor patients as well as to diagnose genetic, medical, and behavioral conditions. The use of FRT in health care suggests the importance of informed consent, data input and analysis quality, effective communication about incidental findings, and potential influence on patient-clinician relationships. Privacy and data protection are thought to present challenges for the use of FRT for health applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/amajethics.2019.180

    View details for PubMedID 30794128

  • Data mining for health: staking out the ethical territory of digital phenotyping NPJ DIGITAL MEDICINE Martinez-Martin, N., Insel, T. R., Dagum, P., Greely, H. T., Cho, M. K. 2018; 1
Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Biomedical Ethics

Publications

Clinical Professor, Genetics

Publications

  • Application of a framework to guide genetic testing communication across clinical indications. Genome medicine Hallquist, M. L., Tricou, E. P., Ormond, K. E., Savatt, J. M., Coughlin, C. R., Faucett, W. A., Hercher, L., Levy, H. P., O'Daniel, J. M., Peay, H. L., Stosic, M., Smith, M., Uhlmann, W. R., Wand, H., Wain, K. E., Buchanan, A. H. 2021; 13 (1): 71

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Genetic information is increasingly relevant across healthcare. Traditional genetic counseling (GC) may limit access to genetic information and may be more information and support than some individuals need. We report on the application and clinical implications of a framework to consistently integrate genetics expertise where it is most useful to patients.METHODS: The Clinical Genome Resource's (ClinGen) Consent and Disclosure Recommendations (CADRe) workgroup designed rubrics to guide pre- and post-genetic test communication. Using a standard set of testing indications, pre- and post-test rubrics were applied to 40 genetic conditions or testing modalities with diverse features, including variability in levels of penetrance, clinical actionability, and evidence supporting a gene-disease relationship. Final communication recommendations were reached by group consensus.RESULTS: Communication recommendations were determined for 478 unique condition-indication or testing-indication pairs. For half of the conditions and indications (238/478), targeted discussions (moderate communication depth) were the recommended starting communication level for pre- and post-test conversations. Traditional GC was recommended pre-test for adult-onset neurodegenerative conditions for individuals with no personal history and post-test for most conditions when genetic testing revealed a molecular diagnosis as these situations are likely higher in complexity and uncertainty. A brief communication approach was recommended for more straightforward conditions and indications (e.g., familial hypercholesterolemia; familial variant testing).CONCLUSIONS: The CADRe recommendations provide guidance for clinicians in determining the depth of pre- and post-test communication, strategically aligning the anticipated needs of patients with the starting communication approach. Shorter targeted discussions or brief communications are suggested for many tests and indications. Longer traditional GC consultations would be reserved for patients with more complex and uncertain situations where detailed information, education, and psychological support can be most beneficial. Future studies of the CADRe communication framework will be essential for determining if CADRe-informed care supports quality patient experience while improving access to genetic information across healthcare.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s13073-021-00887-x

    View details for PubMedID 33926532

  • Improving reporting standards for polygenic scores in risk prediction studies. Nature Wand, H., Lambert, S. A., Tamburro, C., Iacocca, M. A., O'Sullivan, J. W., Sillari, C., Kullo, I. J., Rowley, R., Dron, J. S., Brockman, D., Venner, E., McCarthy, M. I., Antoniou, A. C., Easton, D. F., Hegele, R. A., Khera, A. V., Chatterjee, N., Kooperberg, C., Edwards, K., Vlessis, K., Kinnear, K., Danesh, J. N., Parkinson, H., Ramos, E. M., Roberts, M. C., Ormond, K. E., Khoury, M. J., Janssens, A. C., Goddard, K. A., Kraft, P., MacArthur, J. A., Inouye, M., Wojcik, G. L. 2021; 591 (7849): 211–19

    Abstract

    Polygenic risk scores (PRSs), which often aggregate results from genome-wide association studies, can bridge the gap between initial discovery efforts and clinical applications for the estimation of disease risk using genetics. However, there is notable heterogeneity in the application and reporting of these risk scores, which hinders the translation of PRSs into clinical care. Here, in a collaboration between the Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) Complex Disease Working Group and the Polygenic Score (PGS) Catalog, we present the Polygenic Risk Score Reporting Standards (PRS-RS), in which we update the Genetic Risk Prediction Studies (GRIPS) Statement to reflect the present state of the field. Drawing on the input of experts in epidemiology, statistics, disease-specific applications, implementation and policy, this comprehensive reporting framework defines the minimal information that is needed to interpret and evaluate PRSs, especially with respect to downstream clinical applications. Items span detailed descriptions of study populations, statistical methods for the development and validation of PRSs and considerations for the potential limitations of these scores. In addition, we emphasize the need for data availability and transparency, and we encourage researchers to deposit and share PRSs through the PGS Catalog to facilitate reproducibility and comparative benchmarking. By providing these criteria in a structured format that builds on existing standards and ontologies, the use of this framework in publishing PRSs will facilitate translation into clinical care and progress towards defining best practice.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-021-03243-6

    View details for PubMedID 33692554

  • Clinical Genetics Lacks Standard Definitions and Protocols for the Collection and Use of Diversity Measures. American journal of human genetics Popejoy, A. B., Crooks, K. R., Fullerton, S. M., Hindorff, L. A., Hooker, G. W., Koenig, B. A., Pino, N., Ramos, E. M., Ritter, D. I., Wand, H., Wright, M. W., Yudell, M., Zou, J. Y., Plon, S. E., Bustamante, C. D., Ormond, K. E., Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) Ancestry and Diversity Working Group 2020

    Abstract

    Genetics researchers and clinical professionals rely on diversity measures such as race, ethnicity, and ancestry (REA) to stratify study participants and patients for a variety of applications in research and precision medicine. However, there are no comprehensive, widely accepted standards or guidelines for collecting and using such data in clinical genetics practice. Two NIH-funded research consortia, the Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) and Clinical Sequencing Evidence-generating Research (CSER), have partnered to address this issue and report how REA are currently collected, conceptualized, and used. Surveying clinical genetics professionals and researchers (n = 448), we found heterogeneity in the way REA are perceived, defined, and measured, with variation in the perceived importance of REA in both clinical and research settings. The majority of respondents (>55%) felt that REA are at least somewhat important for clinical variant interpretation, ordering genetic tests, and communicating results to patients. However, there was no consensus on the relevance of REA, including how each of these measures should be used in different scenarios and what information they can convey in the context of human genetics. A lack of common definitions and applications of REA across the precision medicine pipeline may contribute to inconsistencies in data collection, missing or inaccurate classifications, and misleading or inconclusive results. Thus, our findings support the need for standardization and harmonization of REA data collection and use in clinical genetics and precision health research.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.05.005

    View details for PubMedID 32504544

The Colleen and Robert Haas Professor in Medicine and Biomedical Ethics, Emeritus

Publications

  • Advertising, patient decision making, and self-referral for computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging ARCHIVES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Illes, J., Kann, D., Karetsky, K., Letourneau, P., Raffin, T. A., Schraedley-Desmond, P., Koenig, B. A., Atlas, S. W. 2004; 164 (22): 2415-2419

    Abstract

    Self-referred imaging is one of the latest health care services to be marketed directly to consumers. Most aspects of these services are unregulated, and little is known about the messages in advertising used to attract potential consumers. We conducted a detailed analysis of print advertisements and informational brochures for self-referred imaging with respect to themes, content, accuracy, and emotional valence.Forty print advertisements from US newspapers around the country and 20 informational brochures were analyzed by 2 independent raters according to 7 major themes: health care technology; emotion, empowerment, and assurance; incentives; limited supporting evidence; popular appeal; statistics; and images. The Fisher exact test was used to identify significant differences in information content.Both the advertisements and the brochures emphasized health care and technology information and provided assurances of good health and incentives to self-refer. These materials also encouraged consumers to seek further information from company resources; virtually none referred to noncomplying sources of information or to the risks of having a scan. Images of people commonly portrayed European Americans. We found statistical differences between newspaper advertisements and mailed brochures for references to "prevalence of disease" (P<.001), "death" (P<.003), and "radiation" (P<.001). Statements lacking clear scientific evidence were identified in 38% of the advertisements (n = 15) and 25% of the brochures (n = 5).Direct-to-consumer marketing of self-referred imaging services, in both print advertisements and informational brochures, fails to provide prospective consumers with comprehensive balanced information vital to informed autonomous decision making. Professional guidelines and oversight for advertising and promotion of these services are needed.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225701900003

    View details for PubMedID 15596630

  • Discovery and disclosure of incidental findings in neuroimaging research 33rd Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Neuroscience Illes, J., Kirschen, M. P., Karetsky, K., Kelly, M., Saha, A., Desmond, J. E., Raffin, T. A., Glover, G. H., Atlas, S. W. JOHN WILEY & SONS INC. 2004: 743–47

    Abstract

    To examine different protocols for handling incidental findings on brain research MRIs, and provide a platform for establishing formal discussions of related ethical and policy issues.Corresponding authors identified from a database of peer-reviewed publications in 1991-2002 involving functional MRI (fMRI), alone or in combination with other imaging modalities, were invited to participate in this web-based survey. The survey asked questions regarding knowledge and handling of incidental findings, as well as characteristics of the scanning environment, training required, IRB protocol requirements, and neuroradiologist involvement.Seventy-four investigators who conduct MRI studies in the United States and abroad responded. Eighty-two percent (54/66) reported discovering incidental findings in their studies, such as arteriovenous malformations, brain tumors, and developmental abnormalities. Substantial variability was found in the procedures for handling and communicating findings to subjects, neuroradiologist involvement, personnel permitted to operate equipment, and training.Guidelines for minimum and optimum standards for detecting and communicating incidental findings on brain MRI research are needed.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.20180

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224762700001

    View details for PubMedID 15503329

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1506385

  • Chylothorax after heart/lung transplantation JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION Ziedalski, T. M., Raffin, T. A., Sze, D. Y., Mitchell, J. D., Robbins, R. C., Theodore, J., Faul, J. L. 2004; 23 (5): 627-631

    Abstract

    Chylothorax is a potentially serious complication of lung and heart-lung transplantation. This article describes the clinical course of chylothorax in 3 heart-lung allograft recipients. We discuss management options, including dietary modifications, octreotide infusion, thoracic duct ligation and embolization, and surgical pleurodesis. In addition, we describe the novel use of aminocaproic acid to reduce lymph flow. We propose a multidisciplinary approach for the management of chylothorax that includes both medical and surgical options.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221393700018

    View details for PubMedID 15135382

Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Biomedical Ethics

Publications

  • A policy Delphi study to validate the key implications of data sharing (KIDS) framework for pediatric genomics in Canada. BMC medical ethics Rahimzadeh, V., Bartlett, G., Knoppers, B. M. 2021; 22 (1): 71

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: The highly sensitive nature of genomic and associated clinical data, coupled with the consent-related vulnerabilities of children together accentuate ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) concerning data sharing. The Key Implications of Data Sharing (KIDS) framework was therefore developed to address a need for institutional guidance on genomic data governance but has yet to be validated among data sharing practitioners in practice settings. This study qualitatively explored areas of consensus and dissensus of the KIDS Framework from the perspectives of Canadian clinician-scientists, genomic researchers, IRB members, and pediatric ethicists.METHODS: Twelve panelists participated in a three-round online policy Delphi to determine the desirability, feasibility, relative importance and confidence of twelve individual statements of the KIDS Framework. Mean and IQR were calculated from panelists' ratings to determine the strength of consensus and polarity. Qualitative content analysis of panelists' written responses was used to assess degree of support. Statements were validated when their combined ratings and qualitative rationales indicated high-moderate consensus (at least 70% agreement across two contiguous categories), low to no polarity (IQRat least1.0) and strong support.RESULTS: Nine original, and one new statement reached consensus. These statements outlined essential elements of the informed consent process, including a realistic evaluation of benefits and risks and assurance of future ethics oversight for secondary data use. Discrepant views on appropriate protections for anonymized and coded i.e. de-identified genomic data were primary sources of dissensus.CONCLUSIONS: The validated statements provide institutions with empirically supported best practices for sharing genomic and associated clinical data involving children from the perspectives of key stakeholders. Concerted efforts to quantify informational risks that can be conveyed to patients and families are further needed to align data sharing policy with stakeholder priorities.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12910-021-00635-1

    View details for PubMedID 34107925

  • Communication of Pharmacogenomic test results and treatment plans in pediatric oncology: deliberative stakeholder consultations with parents. BMC palliative care Longo, C., Rahimzadeh, V., Bartlett, G. 2021; 20 (1): 15

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Effective communication in support of clinical decision-making is central to the pediatric cancer care experience for families. A new laboratory derived pharmacogenetic test (LDT) that can diagnose difficult-to-treat brain cancers has been developed to stratify children based on their ability to respond to available treatment; however, the potential implementation of the LDT may make effective communication challenging since it can potentially remove the option for curative treatment in those children identified as non-responders, i.e. those with a catastrophic diagnosis.OBJECTIVE: We solicited the perspectives of parents of children with difficult-to-treat brain cancer on communication preferences surrounding the potential implementation of the LDT in standard care using deliberative stakeholder consultations.METHODS: Eight bereaved parents of children who succumbed to difficult-to-treat brain cancer, and four parents of children currently undergoing treatment for similar cancers attended separate small-group deliberative consultations - a stakeholder engagement method that enables the co-creation of recommendations following the consideration of competing arguments and diverse opinions of parents with different experiences. In the small-group consultations (Phase I), parents discussed four questions about potential communication issues that may arise with the LDT in practice. In Phase II, a total of five parents from both stakeholder groups (4 bereaved and 1 in current treatment) attended a consultation, known as the 'mixed' consultation, with the purpose of co-developing concrete recommendations for implementation of the LDT.RESULTS: Explaining the risks, benefits, and accuracy of the LDT were considered essential to parents. Once an LDT-based diagnosis/prognosis can be made, parents valued honesty, empathy, and clarity in communication. Parents also requested that all results and treatment options be presented to them in measured doses, and in an unbiased manner over the course of several meetings. This communication strategy allowed sufficient time to understand and accept the diagnosis/prognosis, particularly if it was catastrophic. Continuous access to the appropriate psychological and social support or counselling at and post-diagnosis was also strongly recommended.CONCLUSIONS: Deliberants co-created family-centered recommendations surrounding communication issues of the LDT, providing guidance to pediatric oncologists that could implement the test in practice.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12904-021-00709-2

    View details for PubMedID 33435936

  • Ethics and Informatics in the Age of COVID-19: Challenges and Recommendations for Public Health Organization and Public Policy. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA Subbian, V., Solomonides, A., Clarkson, M., Rahimzadeh, V. N., Petersen, C., Schreiber, R., DeMuro, P. R., Dua, P., Goodman, K. W., Kaplan, B., Koppel, R., Lehmann, C. U., Pan, E., Senathirajah, Y. 2020

    Abstract

    The COVID-19 pandemic response in the United States has exposed significant gaps in information systems and processes to enable timely clinical and public health decision-making. Specifically, the use of informatics to mitigate the spread of SARS-CoV-2, support COVID-19 care delivery, and accelerate knowledge discovery bring to the forefront issues of privacy, surveillance, limits of state powers, and interoperability between public health and clinical information systems. Using a consensus building process, we critically analyze informatics-related ethical issues in light of the pandemic across three themes: (1) public health reporting and data sharing, (2) contact tracing and tracking, and (3) clinical scoring tools for critical care. We provide context and rationale for ethical considerations and recommendations that are actionable during the pandemic, and conclude with recommendations calling for long-term, broader change (beyond the pandemic) for public health organization and policy reform.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/jamia/ocaa188

    View details for PubMedID 32722749

Adjunct Clinical Associate Professor, Pediatrics - Center for Biomedical Ethics
Professor of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine

Publications

Associate Professor of Medicine (General Medical Disciplines) and, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health

Publications

  • Commonalities across computational workflows for uncovering explanatory variants in undiagnosed cases. Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics Kobren, S. N., Baldridge, D., Velinder, M., Krier, J. B., LeBlanc, K., Esteves, C., Pusey, B. N., Zuchner, S., Blue, E., Lee, H., Huang, A., Bastarache, L., Bican, A., Cogan, J., Marwaha, S., Alkelai, A., Murdock, D. R., Liu, P., Wegner, D. J., Paul, A. J., Undiagnosed Diseases Network, Sunyaev, S. R., Kohane, I. S., Acosta, M. T., Adam, M., Adams, D. R., Agrawal, P. B., Alejandro, M. E., Alvey, J., Amendola, L., Andrews, A., Ashley, E. A., Azamian, M. S., Bacino, C. A., Bademci, G., Baker, E., Balasubramanyam, A., Baldridge, D., Bale, J., Bamshad, M., Barbouth, D., Bayrak-Toydemir, P., Beck, A., Beggs, A. H., Behrens, E., Bejerano, G., Bennett, J., Berg-Rood, B., Bernstein, J. A., Berry, G. T., Bican, A., Bivona, S., Blue, E., Bohnsack, J., Bonnenmann, C., Bonner, D., Botto, L., Boyd, B., Briere, L. C., Brokamp, E., Brown, G., Burke, E. A., Burrage, L. C., Butte, M. J., Byers, P., Byrd, W. E., Carey, J., Carrasquillo, O., Chang, T. C., Chanprasert, S., Chao, H., Clark, G. D., Coakley, T. R., Cobban, L. A., Cogan, J. D., Coggins, M., Cole, F. S., Colley, H. A., Cooper, C. M., Cope, H., Craigen, W. J., Crouse, A. B., Cunningham, M., D'Souza, P., Dai, H., Dasari, S., Davis, J., Daya, J. G., Deardorff, M., Dell'Angelica, E. C., Dhar, S. U., Dipple, K., Doherty, D., Dorrani, N., Doss, A. L., Douine, E. D., Draper, D. D., Duncan, L., Earl, D., Eckstein, D. J., Emrick, L. T., Eng, C. M., Esteves, C., Falk, M., Fernandez, L., Ferreira, C., Fieg, E. L., Findley, L. C., Fisher, P. G., Fogel, B. L., Forghani, I., Fresard, L., Gahl, W. A., Glass, I., Gochuico, B., Godfrey, R. A., Golden-Grant, K., Goldman, A. M., Goldrich, M. P., Goldstein, D. B., Grajewski, A., Groden, C. A., Gutierrez, I., Hahn, S., Hamid, R., Hanchard, N. A., Hassey, K., Hayes, N., High, F., Hing, A., Hisama, F. M., Holm, I. A., Hom, J., Horike-Pyne, M., Huang, A., Huang, Y., Huryn, L., Isasi, R., Jamal, F., Jarvik, G. P., Jarvik, J., Jayadev, S., Karaviti, L., Kennedy, J., Kiley, D., Kohane, I. S., Kohler, J. N., Korrick, S., Kozuira, M., Krakow, D., Krasnewich, D. M., Kravets, E., Krier, J. B., LaMoure, G. L., Lalani, S. R., Lam, B., Lam, C., Lanpher, B. C., Lanza, I. R., Latham, L., LeBlanc, K., Lee, B. H., Lee, H., Levitt, R., Lewis, R. A., Lincoln, S. A., Liu, P., Liu, X. Z., Longo, N., Loo, S. K., Loscalzo, J., Maas, R. L., MacDowall, J., MacRae, C. A., Macnamara, E. F., Maduro, V. V., Majcherska, M. M., Mak, B. C., Malicdan, M. C., Mamounas, L. A., Manolio, T. A., Mao, R., Maravilla, K., Markello, T. C., Marom, R., Marth, G., Martin, B. A., Martin, M. G., Martinez-Agosto, J. A., Marwaha, S., McCauley, J., McConkie-Rosell, A., McCormack, C. E., McCray, A. T., McGee, E., Mefford, H., Merritt, J. L., Might, M., Mirzaa, G., Morava, E., Moretti, P. M., Moretti, P., Mosbrook-Davis, D., Mulvihill, J. J., Murdock, D. R., Nagy, A., Nakano-Okuno, M., Nath, A., Nelson, S. F., Newman, J. H., Nicholas, S. K., Nickerson, D., Nieves-Rodriguez, S., Novacic, D., Oglesbee, D., Orengo, J. P., Pace, L., Pak, S., Pallais, J. C., Palmer, C. G., Papp, J. C., Parker, N. H., Phillips, J. A., Posey, J. E., Potocki, L., Power, B., Pusey, B. N., Quinlan, A., Raja, A. N., Rao, D. A., Raskind, W., Renteria, G., Reuter, C. M., Rives, L., Robertson, A. K., Rodan, L. H., Rosenfeld, J. A., Rosenwasser, N., Rossignol, F., Ruzhnikov, M., Sacco, R., Sampson, J. B., Samson, S. L., Saporta, M., Schaechter, J., Schedl, T., Schoch, K., Scott, C. R., Scott, D. A., Shashi, V., Shin, J., Signer, R. H., Silverman, E. K., Sinsheimer, J. S., Sisco, K., Smith, E. C., Smith, K. S., Solem, E., Solnica-Krezel, L., Ben Solomon, S., Spillmann, R. C., Stoler, J. M., Sullivan, J. A., Sullivan, K., Sun, A., Sutton, S., Sweetser, D. A., Sybert, V., Tabor, H. K., Tan, A. L., Tan, Q. K., Tekin, M., Telischi, F., Thorson, W., Thurm, A., Tifft, C. J., Toro, C., Tran, A. A., Tucker, B. M., Urv, T. K., Vanderver, A., Velinder, M., Viskochil, D., Vogel, T. P., Wahl, C. E., Walker, M., Wallace, S., Walley, N. M., Walsh, C. A., Wambach, J., Wan, J., Wang, L., Wangler, M. F., Ward, P. A., Wegner, D., Wener, M., Wenger, T., Perry, K. W., Westerfield, M., Wheeler, M. T., Whitlock, J., Wolfe, L. A., Woods, J. D., Yamamoto, S., Yang, J., Yousef, M., Zastrow, D. B., Zein, W., Zhao, C., Zuchner, S. 2021

    Abstract

    PURPOSE: Genomic sequencing has become an increasingly powerful and relevant tool to be leveraged for the discovery of genetic aberrations underlying rare, Mendelian conditions. Although the computational tools incorporated into diagnostic workflows for this task are continually evolving and improving, we nevertheless sought to investigate commonalities across sequencing processing workflows to reveal consensus and standard practice tools and highlight exploratory analyses where technical and theoretical method improvements would be most impactful.METHODS: We collected details regarding the computational approaches used by a genetic testing laboratory and 11 clinical research sites in the United States participating in the Undiagnosed Diseases Network via meetings with bioinformaticians, online survey forms, and analyses of internal protocols.RESULTS: We found that tools for processing genomic sequencing data can be grouped into four distinct categories. Whereas well-established practices exist for initial variant calling and quality control steps, there is substantial divergence across sites in later stages for variant prioritization and multimodal data integration, demonstrating a diversity of approaches for solving the most mysterious undiagnosed cases.CONCLUSION: The largest differences across diagnostic workflows suggest that advances in structural variant detection, noncoding variant interpretation, and integration of additional biomedical data may be especially promising for solving chronically undiagnosed cases.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41436-020-01084-8

    View details for PubMedID 33580225

  • "It seems like COVID-19 now is the only disease present on Earth": living with a rare or undiagnosed disease during the COVID-19 pandemic. Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics Halley, M. C., Stanley, T. n., Maturi, J. n., Goldenberg, A. J., Bernstein, J. A., Wheeler, M. T., Tabor, H. K. 2021

    Abstract

    Patients with rare and undiagnosed diseases (RUDs) face significant health challenges, which may be exacerbated during the COVID-19 pandemic. The goal of this study was to identify specific impacts of the pandemic on RUD patients, and targets for improving support and health-care access.We conducted an online survey of RUD patients and their family members from 21 April to 8 June 2020, recruited from 76 Facebook groups for RUDs. Questions assessed patient characteristics and impacts of the pandemic on RUD diagnosis and management.Respondents (n = 413), including 274 RUD patients and 139 family members, were predominantly female and white, though income varied. Impacts of the pandemic included (1) barriers to accessing essential health care, (2) specific impacts of restrictive COVID-19 visitation policies on ability to advocate in health-care settings, (3) uncertainty and fear regarding COVID-19 risk, (4) exacerbated physical and mental health challenges, (5) magnified impacts of reduced educational and therapeutic services, and (6) unexpected positive changes due to the pandemic.There are specific, serious challenges affecting RUD patients and families during the COVID-19 pandemic. There is an urgent need to develop approaches to mitigate these challenges both during and beyond the pandemic.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41436-020-01069-7

    View details for PubMedID 33420343

  • Patient and family social media use surrounding a novel treatment for a rare genetic disease: a qualitative interview study. Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics Iyer, A. A., Barzilay, J. R., Tabor, H. K. 2020

    Abstract

    PURPOSE: Advances in gene therapy and precision medicine have led to a growing number of novel treatments for rare genetic diseases. Patients/families may lack access to up-to-date, accurate, and relevant information about these treatments. Social media offers one potentially important resource for these communities. Our goal was to understand how patients/families with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)-a rare genetic condition-used social media to share, consume, and evaluate information about the novel treatment nusinersen (Spinraza) following the drug's approval.METHODS: We conducted qualitative, semistructured interviews with 20 SMA patients or parents of patients, deriving themes and subthemes through content and thematic network analysis. Participants also completed a demographic survey.RESULTS: Participants described leveraging social media to learn about nusinersen treatment, make informed treatment decisions, and advocate for/access treatment. They also described critically evaluating the trustworthiness of nusinersen-related information on social media and the privacy risks of social media use.CONCLUSION: Patients/families used social media to navigate the new and dynamic landscape of nusinersen treatment for SMA, while attempting to mitigate misinformation and privacy risks. As new treatments become available, providers and patients/families may benefit from proactively discussing social media use, so as to maximize important benefits while minimizing risks.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41436-020-0890-6

    View details for PubMedID 32601388

Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Biomedical Ethics

Publications

  • "Doctors can read about it, they can know about it, but they've never lived with it": How parents use social media throughout the diagnostic odyssey. Journal of genetic counseling Deuitch, N. T., Beckman, E., Halley, M. C., Young, J. L., Reuter, C. M., Kohler, J., Bernstein, J. A., Wheeler, M. T., Undiagnosed Diseases Network, Ormond, K. E., Tabor, H. K. 2021

    Abstract

    Parents of children with undiagnosed conditions struggle to obtain information about how to treat and support their children. It can be particularly challenging to find communities and other parents who share their experiences and can provide emotional and informational support. This study sought to characterize how parents use social media, both throughout the diagnostic odyssey and post-diagnosis, to meet their informational, social, and emotional support needs. We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with 14 parents from the Stanford site of the Undiagnosed Diseases Network (UDN), including five whose children had received a diagnosis through study participation. Interview recordings were analyzed using inductive, team-based coding and thematic analysis based in grounded theory using Dedoose qualitative analysis software. Through this process, we identified four key themes related to social media use. First, parents struggled to find the "right" community, often seeking out groups of similar patients based on symptoms or similar conditions. Second, though they found much valuable information through social media about caring for their child, they also struggled to interpret the relevance of the information to their own child's condition. Third, the social support and access to other patients' and families' lived experiences were described as both highly valued and emotionally challenging, particularly in the case of poor outcomes for similar families. Finally, parents expressed the need to balance concerns about their child's privacy with the value of transparency and data sharing for diagnosis. Our results suggest that the needs and experiences of undiagnosed patients and families differ from those with diagnosed diseases and highlight the need for support in best utilizing social media resources at different stages of the diagnostic odyssey.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jgc4.1438

    View details for PubMedID 34096130

  • Genetic counseling and testing for Asian Americans: a systematic review. Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics Young, J. L., Mak, J., Stanley, T., Bass, M., Cho, M. K., Tabor, H. K. 2021

    Abstract

    PURPOSE: Asian Americans have been understudied in the literature on genetic and genomic services. The current study systematically identified, evaluated, and summarized findings from relevant qualitative and quantitative studies on genetic health care for Asian Americans.METHODS: A search of five databases (1990 to 2018) returned 8,522 unique records. After removing duplicates, abstract/title screening, and full text review, 47 studies met inclusion criteria. Data from quantitative studies were converted into "qualitized data" and pooled together with thematic data from qualitative studies to produce a set of integrated findings.RESULTS: Synthesis of results revealed that (1) Asian Americans are under-referred but have high uptake for genetic services, (2) linguistic/communication challenges were common and Asian Americans expected more directive genetic counseling, and (3) Asian Americans' family members were involved in testing decisions, but communication of results and risk information to family members was lower than other racial groups.CONCLUSION: This study identified multiple barriers to genetic counseling, testing, and care for Asian Americans, as well as gaps in the research literature. By focusing on these barriers and filling these gaps, clinical genetic approaches can be tailored to meet the needs of diverse patient groups, particularly those of Asian descent.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41436-021-01169-y

    View details for PubMedID 33972720

  • Beyond diagnosis: understanding the downstream impacts of genome sequencing for undiagnosed rare diseases Halley, M., Young, J., Tabor, H., Undiagnosed Dis Network ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE. 2021: S290