Publications

SCBE faculty and fellows publish often in leading journals. SCBE is also home to the editorial office of the American Journal of Bioethics (AJOB).

 

Associate Professor of Medicine (Primary Care and Population Health) and of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine at the Stanford University Medical Center

Publications

  • Preoperative Conversations About Postoperative Risks, Outcomes, and Quality of Life-Time to Start Thinking Outside the Box. JAMA network open Yefimova, M., Aslakson, R. A. 2020; 3 (11): e2024048

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.24048

    View details for PubMedID 33180125

  • Church leaders and parishioners speak out about the role of the church in advance care planning and end-of-life care. Palliative & supportive care Sloan, D. H., Gray, T. F., Harris, D., Peters, T., Belcher, A., Aslakson, R., Bowie, J. 2020: 1–7

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the increased focus on improving advance care planning (ACP) in African Americans through community partnerships, little published research focused on the role of the African American church in this effort. This study examines parishioner perceptions and beliefs about the role of the church in ACP and end-of-life care (EOLC).METHOD: Qualitative interviews were completed with 25 church members (parishioners n = 15, church leader n = 10). The coding of data entailed a direct content analysis approach incorporating team experts for final themes.RESULTS: Seven themes emerged: (1) church role on end-of-life, (2) advocacy for health and well-being, (3) health literacy in EOLC, (4) lay health training on ACP and EOLC, (5) church recognized as a trusted source, (6) use of church ministries to sustain programs related to ACP and EOLC, and (7) community resources for EOLC needs.SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: The church has a central role in the African American Community. These findings suggest that involving African American churches in ACP and EOLC training can have a positive effect on facilitating planning and care during illness, dying, and death for their congregants.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S1478951520000966

    View details for PubMedID 33118897

  • Opportunities for Palliative Care in Patients with Burn Injury-A Systematic Review Cook, A., Langston, J., Jaramillo, J., Edwards, K., Wong, H., Aslakson, R. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2020: 256
Clinical Associate Professor, Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine

Publications

  • Elective Surgery and COVID-19: A Framework for the Untested Patient. Annals of surgery Lu, A. C., Burgart, A. M. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SLA.0000000000004474

    View details for PubMedID 32889879

  • Parents Demand and Teenager Refuses Epidural Anesthesia. Pediatrics Berkowitz, I., Burgart, A., Truog, R. D., Mancuso, T. J., Char, D., Lantos, J. D. 2020

    Abstract

    A 15-year-old girl is scheduled to undergo an upper lobectomy to debulk metastatic Ewing sarcoma. The anesthesiologist recommended placement of a thoracic epidural catheter to provide postoperative analgesia. The patient did not want a needle to be placed near her spine. She was terrified that the procedure would be painful and that it might paralyze her. Although the anesthesiologist reassured her that sedation and local anesthesia would make the procedure comfortable, she remained vehemently opposed to the epidural procedure. The parents spoke privately to the anesthesiologist and asked for placement of the epidural after she was asleep. They firmly believed that this would provide optimal postoperative analgesia and thus would be in her best interest. Experts discuss the pros and cons of siding with the patient or parents.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2019-3295

    View details for PubMedID 32398328

  • The opioid crisis should lead pediatric anesthesiologists to a broader vision of opioid stewardship. Paediatric anaesthesia Burgart, A. M., Char, D. 2019; 29 (11): 1078–80

    View details for DOI 10.1111/pan.13730

    View details for PubMedID 31677337

Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine (Pediatric) at the Stanford University Medical Center

Publications

  • A Framework to Evaluate Ethical Considerations with ML-HCA Applications-Valuable, Even Necessary, but Never Comprehensive. The American journal of bioethics : AJOB Char, D., Abramoff, M., Feudtner, C. 2020; 20 (11): W6–W10

    View details for DOI 10.1080/15265161.2020.1827695

    View details for PubMedID 33103985

  • Identifying Ethical Considerations for Machine Learning Healthcare Applications. The American journal of bioethics : AJOB Char, D. S., Abramoff, M. D., Feudtner, C. 2020; 20 (11): 7–17

    Abstract

    Along with potential benefits to healthcare delivery, machine learning healthcare applications (ML-HCAs) raise a number of ethical concerns. Ethical evaluations of ML-HCAs will need to structure the overall problem of evaluating these technologies, especially for a diverse group of stakeholders. This paper outlines a systematic approach to identifying ML-HCA ethical concerns, starting with a conceptual model of the pipeline of the conception, development, implementation of ML-HCAs, and the parallel pipeline of evaluation and oversight tasks at each stage. Over this model, we layer key questions that raise value-based issues, along with ethical considerations identified in large part by a literature review, but also identifying some ethical considerations that have yet to receive attention. This pipeline model framework will be useful for systematic ethical appraisals of ML-HCA from development through implementation, and for interdisciplinary collaboration of diverse stakeholders that will be required to understand and subsequently manage the ethical implications of ML-HCAs.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/15265161.2020.1819469

    View details for PubMedID 33103967

  • Parents Demand and Teenager Refuses Epidural Anesthesia. Pediatrics Berkowitz, I., Burgart, A., Truog, R. D., Mancuso, T. J., Char, D., Lantos, J. D. 2020

    Abstract

    A 15-year-old girl is scheduled to undergo an upper lobectomy to debulk metastatic Ewing sarcoma. The anesthesiologist recommended placement of a thoracic epidural catheter to provide postoperative analgesia. The patient did not want a needle to be placed near her spine. She was terrified that the procedure would be painful and that it might paralyze her. Although the anesthesiologist reassured her that sedation and local anesthesia would make the procedure comfortable, she remained vehemently opposed to the epidural procedure. The parents spoke privately to the anesthesiologist and asked for placement of the epidural after she was asleep. They firmly believed that this would provide optimal postoperative analgesia and thus would be in her best interest. Experts discuss the pros and cons of siding with the patient or parents.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2019-3295

    View details for PubMedID 32398328

Professor (Research) of Pediatrics (Center for Biomedical Ethics) and of Medicine (General Medical Disciplines)

Publications

  • Taking an antiracist posture in scientific publications in human genetics and genomics. Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics Brothers, K. B., Bennett, R. L., Cho, M. K. 2021

    Abstract

    From its earliest days, the field of human genetics has had a complex, and at times troubling, connection with racist ideologies. Although the modern field of human genetics and genomics has come a long way from those earlier errors, systemic racism remains ingrained in its institutions and practices. Although a variety of efforts are needed to excise systemic racism, we focus in this commentary on the work that must be done in scientific publishing in genetics and genomics. We propose eight principles that are both scientifically grounded and antiracist that we hope will serve as a foundation for the development of policies by publishers and editorial boards that address the unique needs of the field of genetics and genomics. Publishers and journals must go beyond mere policies, however. Editors and reviewers will need training on these policies and principles, and will benefit from resources like rubrics that can be used for evaluating the adherence of submissions to these guidelines.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41436-021-01109-w

    View details for PubMedID 33649579

  • Use of Korean dramas to facilitate precision mental health understanding and discussion for Asian Americans. Health promotion international Ta Park, V. M., Park, C. J., Kim, C., Nguyen, N. C., Tran, A. T., Chiang, A., Rho, S. J., Olaisen, R. H., Vuong, Q., Rosas, L. G., Cho, M. K. 2021

    Abstract

    Precision mental health holds great potential for revolutionizing care and reducing the burden of mental illness. All races and ethnicities such as Asian Americans, the fastest growing racial group in the United States (U.S.), need to be engaged in precision mental health research. Owing to its global popularity, Korean drama ('K-drama') television shows may be an effective educational tool to increase precision mental health knowledge, attitudes and behaviors among Asian Americans. This qualitative study examined the participants' perspectives about and acceptance of using K-dramas to educate and engage Asian Americans about precision mental health. Twelve workshops were conducted in English, Vietnamese and Korean with a convenience sample in the San Francisco Bay Area in the U.S. (n=122). Discussions were coded for themes. Findings revealed that all language groups reported positive reactions to using K-dramas to learn about precision health, genetics and mental health. Overall, participants shared that they learned about topics that are not generally talked about (e.g. precision health; genetic testing; mental health), from other people's perspectives, and the importance of mental health. Participants expressed how much they enjoyed the workshop, how they felt relieved due to the workshop, thought the workshop was interesting, and had an opportunity for self-reflection/healing. This pilot test demonstrated that K-dramas has promise to be used as a health educational tool in a workshop format focused on mental health among a diverse group of Asian Americans. Given the widespread access to K-dramas, they present a scalable opportunity for increasing awareness about specific health topics.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/heapro/daab012

    View details for PubMedID 33582752

  • The Invisibility of Asian Americans in COVID-19 Data, Reporting, and Relief. The American journal of bioethics : AJOB Young, J. L., Cho, M. K. 2021; 21 (3): 100–102

    View details for DOI 10.1080/15265161.2020.1870767

    View details for PubMedID 33616487

Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Biomedical Ethics
Deane F. and Kate Edelman Johnson Professor of Law and, Professor, by courtesy, of Genetics

Publications

  • Neuroscience and the Criminal Justice System ANNUAL REVIEW OF CRIMINOLOGY, VOL 2 Greely, H. T., Farahany, N. A., Petersilia, J., Sampson, R. J. 2019; 2: 451–71
  • Neuroethics Guiding Principles for the NIH BRAIN Initiative. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience Greely, H. T., Grady, C., Ramos, K. M., Chiong, W., Eberwine, J., Farahany, N. A., Johnson, L. S., Hyman, B. T., Hyman, S. E., Rommelfanger, K. S., Serrano, E. E. 2018; 38 (50): 10586–88

    View details for DOI 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2077-18.2018

    View details for PubMedID 30541767

  • The ethics of experimenting with human brain tissue. Nature Farahany, N. A., Greely, H. T., Hyman, S. n., Koch, C. n., Grady, C. n., Pașca, S. P., Sestan, N. n., Arlotta, P. n., Bernat, J. L., Ting, J. n., Lunshof, J. E., Iyer, E. P., Hyun, I. n., Capestany, B. H., Church, G. M., Huang, H. n., Song, H. n. 2018; 556 (7702): 429–32

    View details for DOI 10.1038/d41586-018-04813-x

    View details for PubMedID 29691509

Research Scholar, School of Medicine - Biomedical Ethics

Publications

  • "It seems like COVID-19 now is the only disease present on Earth": living with a rare or undiagnosed disease during the COVID-19 pandemic. Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics Halley, M. C., Stanley, T. n., Maturi, J. n., Goldenberg, A. J., Bernstein, J. A., Wheeler, M. T., Tabor, H. K. 2021

    Abstract

    Patients with rare and undiagnosed diseases (RUDs) face significant health challenges, which may be exacerbated during the COVID-19 pandemic. The goal of this study was to identify specific impacts of the pandemic on RUD patients, and targets for improving support and health-care access.We conducted an online survey of RUD patients and their family members from 21 April to 8 June 2020, recruited from 76 Facebook groups for RUDs. Questions assessed patient characteristics and impacts of the pandemic on RUD diagnosis and management.Respondents (n = 413), including 274 RUD patients and 139 family members, were predominantly female and white, though income varied. Impacts of the pandemic included (1) barriers to accessing essential health care, (2) specific impacts of restrictive COVID-19 visitation policies on ability to advocate in health-care settings, (3) uncertainty and fear regarding COVID-19 risk, (4) exacerbated physical and mental health challenges, (5) magnified impacts of reduced educational and therapeutic services, and (6) unexpected positive changes due to the pandemic.There are specific, serious challenges affecting RUD patients and families during the COVID-19 pandemic. There is an urgent need to develop approaches to mitigate these challenges both during and beyond the pandemic.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41436-020-01069-7

    View details for PubMedID 33420343

  • The Intersection of Work and Home Challenges Faced by Physician Mothers During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic: A Mixed-Methods Analysis. Journal of women's health (2002) Halley, M. C., Mathews, K. S., Diamond, L. C., Linos, E. n., Sarkar, U. n., Mangurian, C. n., Sabry, H. n., Goyal, M. K., Olazo, K. n., Miller, E. G., Jagsi, R. n., Linos, E. n. 2021

    Abstract

    Objectives: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has presented extreme challenges for health care workers. This study sought to characterize challenges faced by physician mothers, compare differences in challenges by home and work characteristics, and elicit specific needs and potential solutions. Methods: We conducted a mixed-methods online survey of the Physician Moms Group (PMG) and PMG COVID19 Subgroup on Facebook from April 18th to 29th, 2020. We collected structured data on personal and professional characteristics and qualitative data on home and work concerns. We analyzed qualitative data thematically and used bivariate analyses to evaluate variation in themes by frontline status and children's ages. Results: We included 1,806 participants in analysis and identified 10 key themes. The most frequently identified need/solution was for Community and Government Support (n = 545, 47.1%). When comparing frontline and nonfrontline physicians, those on the frontline more frequently raised concerns about Personal Health and Safety (67.8% vs. 48.4%, p < 0.001), Organizational Communication and Relationships (31.8% vs. 23.8%, p < 0.001), and Family Health and Safety (27.2 vs. 16.6, p < 0.001), while nonfrontline physicians more frequently addressed Patient Care and Safety (56.4% vs. 48.2%, p < 0.001) and Financial/Job Security (33.8% vs. 46.9%, p < 0.001). Participants with an elementary school-aged child more frequently raised concerns about Parenting/Homeschooling (44.0% vs. 31.1%, p < 0.001) and Work/Life Balance (28.4 vs. 13.7, p < 0.001), and participants with a preschool-aged child more frequently addressed Access to Childcare (24.0 vs. 7.7, p < 0.001) and Spouse/Partner Relationships (15.8 vs. 9.5, p < 0.001), when compared to those without children in these age groups. Conclusions: The physician workforce is not homogenous. Health care and government leaders need to understand these diverse challenges in order to meet physicians' professional and family needs during the pandemic.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/jwh.2020.8964

    View details for PubMedID 33761277

  • Anxiety Levels Among Physician Mothers During the COVID-19 Pandemic. The American journal of psychiatry Linos, E., Halley, M. C., Sarkar, U., Mangurian, C., Sabry, H., Olazo, K., Mathews, K. S., Diamond, L., Goyal, M. K., Linos, E., Jagsi, R. 2021; 178 (2): 203–4

    View details for DOI 10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.20071014

    View details for PubMedID 33517747

Clinical Associate Professor, Medicine - Primary Care and Population Health

Publications

  • A framework for making predictive models useful in practice. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA Jung, K., Kashyap, S., Avati, A., Harman, S., Shaw, H., Li, R., Smith, M., Shum, K., Javitz, J., Vetteth, Y., Seto, T., Bagley, S. C., Shah, N. H. 2020

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact of factors in healthcare delivery on the net benefit of triggering an Advanced Care Planning (ACP) workflow based on predictions of 12-month mortality.MATERIALS AND METHODS: We built a predictive model of 12-month mortality using electronic health record data and evaluated the impact of healthcare delivery factors on the net benefit of triggering an ACP workflow based on the models' predictions. Factors included nonclinical reasons that make ACP inappropriate: limited capacity for ACP, inability to follow up due to patient discharge, and availability of an outpatient workflow to follow up on missed cases. We also quantified the relative benefits of increasing capacity for inpatient ACP versus outpatient ACP.RESULTS: Work capacity constraints and discharge timing can significantly reduce the net benefit of triggering the ACP workflow based on a model's predictions. However, the reduction can be mitigated by creating an outpatient ACP workflow. Given limited resources to either add capacity for inpatient ACP versus developing outpatient ACP capability, the latter is likely to provide more benefit to patient care.DISCUSSION: The benefit of using a predictive model for identifying patients for interventions is highly dependent on the capacity to execute the workflow triggered by the model. We provide a framework for quantifying the impact of healthcare delivery factors and work capacity constraints on achieved benefit.CONCLUSION: An analysis of the sensitivity of the net benefit realized by a predictive model triggered clinical workflow to various healthcare delivery factors is necessary for making predictive models useful in practice.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/jamia/ocaa318

    View details for PubMedID 33355350

  • Variation in the design of Do Not Resuscitate orders and other code status options: a multi-institutional qualitative study. BMJ quality & safety Batten, J. N., Blythe, J. A., Wieten, S., Cotler, M. P., Kayser, J. B., Porter-Williamson, K., Harman, S., Dzeng, E., Magnus, D. 2020

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: US hospitals typically provide a set of code status options that includes Full Code and Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) but often includes additional options. Although US hospitals differ in the design of code status options, this variation and its impacts have not been empirically studied.DESIGN AND METHODS: Multi-institutional qualitative study at 7 US hospitals selected for variability in geographical location, type of institution and design of code status options. We triangulated across three data sources (policy documents, code status ordering menus and in-depth physician interviews) to characterise the code status options available at each hospital. Using inductive qualitative methods, we investigated design differences in hospital code status options and the perceived impacts of these differences.RESULTS: The code status options at each hospital varied widely with regard to the number of code status options, the names and definitions of code status options, and the formatting and capabilities of code status ordering menus. DNR orders were named and defined differently at each hospital studied. We identified five key design characteristics that impact the function of a code status order. Each hospital's code status options were unique with respect to these characteristics, indicating that code status plays differing roles in each hospital. Physician participants perceived that the design of code status options shapes communication and decision-making practices about resuscitation and life-sustaining treatments, especially at the end of life. We identified four potential mechanisms through which this may occur: framing conversations, prompting decisions, shaping inferences and creating categories.CONCLUSIONS: There are substantive differences in the design of hospital code status options that may contribute to known variability in end-of-life care and treatment intensity among US hospitals. Our framework can be used to design hospital code status options or evaluate their function.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjqs-2020-011222

    View details for PubMedID 33082165

  • What If I Get Seriously Ill? A Virtual Workshop for Advance Care Planning During COVID-19. Journal of pain and symptom management Smith, G. M., Hui, F. A., Bleymaier, C. R., Bragg, A. R., Harman, S. M. 2020

    Abstract

    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has brought public attention to questions regarding the type of care individuals would want to receive in the event of becoming suddenly critically ill. Advance care planning (ACP) is one way to help individuals and families address these questions. However, social distancing, stay-at-home orders, and hospital visitor restrictions have raised new barriers to facilitating these conversations. Here, we describe the implementation and evaluation of a novel, public-facing, 2-part virtual ACP workshop. Participants were recruited through electronic communication, and evaluations were collected through surveys administered after each part of the workshop. We found that utilizing a virtual format allowed us to reach a large, geographically diverse audience. Participants were likely to recommend the workshop to friends and family. There was no change in advance care planning engagement between the post-session surveys between the first and second parts of the workshop.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.08.022

    View details for PubMedID 32835831

Sr Research Scholar, Pediatrics - Center for Biomedical Ethics Affiliate, School of Medicine - Biomedical Ethics

Publications

  • Excavating the Personal Genome: The Good Biocitizen in the Age of Precision Health HASTINGS CENTER REPORT Lee, S. 2020; 50: S54–S61

    Abstract

    The rise of genomic technologies has catalyzed shifts in the health care landscape through the commercialization of genome sequencing and testing services in the genomics marketplace. The development of consumer genomics into a growing array of information technologies aimed at collecting, curating, and broadly sharing personal data and biological materials reconstitutes the meaning of health and reframes patients into biocitizens. In this context, the good biocitizen is expected to assume personal responsibility for health through consumption of genomic information and acquiescence to public and private efforts at data surveillance and aggregation. These shifts raise fundamental questions about how competing interests of the public, the state, and corporate entities will be reconciled and what trade-offs are demanded for the promise of precision health.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/hast.1156

    View details for Web of Science ID 000543918300008

    View details for PubMedID 32597530

  • Obligations of the "Gift": Reciprocity and Responsibility in Precision Medicine. The American journal of bioethics : AJOB Lee, S. S. 2020: 1–15

    Abstract

    Precision medicine relies on data and biospecimens from participants who willingly offer their personal information on the promise that this act will ultimately result in knowledge that will improve human health. Drawing on anthropological framings of the "gift," this paper contextualizes participation in precision medicine as inextricable from social relationships and their ongoing ethical obligations. Going beyond altruism, reframing biospecimen and data collection in terms of socially regulated gift-giving recovers questions of responsibility and care. As opposed to conceiving participation in terms of donations that elide clinical labor critical to precision medicine, the gift metaphor underscores ethical commitments to reciprocity and responsibility. This demands confronting inequities in precision medicine, such as systemic bias and lack of affordability and access. A focus on justice in precision medicine that recognizes the sociality of the gift is a critical frontier for bioethics.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/15265161.2020.1851813

    View details for PubMedID 33325811

  • Integrating stakeholder feedback in translational genomics research: an ethnographic analysis of a study protocol's evolution. Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics Kraft, S. A., McMullen, C. n., Lindberg, N. M., Bui, D. n., Shipman, K. n., Anderson, K. n., Joseph, G. n., Duenas, D. M., Porter, K. M., Kauffman, T. L., Koomas, A. n., Ransom, C. L., Jackson, P. n., Goddard, K. A., Wilfond, B. S., Lee, S. S. 2020

    Abstract

    This study describes challenges faced while incorporating sometimes conflicting stakeholder feedback into study design and development of patient-facing materials for a translational genomics study aiming to reduce health disparities among diverse populations.We conducted an ethnographic analysis of study documents including summaries of patient advisory committee meetings and interviews, reflective field notes written by study team members, and correspondence with our institutional review board (IRB). Through this analysis, we identified cross-cutting challenges for incorporating stakeholder feedback into development of our recruitment, risk assessment, and informed consent processes and materials.Our analysis revealed three key challenges: (1) balancing precision and simplicity in the design of study materials, (2) providing clinical care within the research context, and (3) emphasizing potential study benefits versus risks and limitations.While involving patient stakeholders in study design and materials development can increase inclusivity and responsiveness to patient needs, patient feedback may conflict with that of content area experts on the research team and IRBs who are tasked with overseeing the research. Our analysis highlights the need for further empirical research about ethical challenges when incorporating patient feedback into study design, and for dialogue with genomic researchers and IRB representatives about these issues.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41436-020-0763-z

    View details for PubMedID 32089547

Thomas A. Raffin Professor in Medicine and Biomedical Ethics and Professor (Teaching) of Medicine (Primary Care and Population Health)

Publications

  • Variation in the design of Do Not Resuscitate orders and other code status options: a multi-institutional qualitative study. BMJ quality & safety Batten, J. N., Blythe, J. A., Wieten, S., Cotler, M. P., Kayser, J. B., Porter-Williamson, K., Harman, S., Dzeng, E., Magnus, D. 2020

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: US hospitals typically provide a set of code status options that includes Full Code and Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) but often includes additional options. Although US hospitals differ in the design of code status options, this variation and its impacts have not been empirically studied.DESIGN AND METHODS: Multi-institutional qualitative study at 7 US hospitals selected for variability in geographical location, type of institution and design of code status options. We triangulated across three data sources (policy documents, code status ordering menus and in-depth physician interviews) to characterise the code status options available at each hospital. Using inductive qualitative methods, we investigated design differences in hospital code status options and the perceived impacts of these differences.RESULTS: The code status options at each hospital varied widely with regard to the number of code status options, the names and definitions of code status options, and the formatting and capabilities of code status ordering menus. DNR orders were named and defined differently at each hospital studied. We identified five key design characteristics that impact the function of a code status order. Each hospital's code status options were unique with respect to these characteristics, indicating that code status plays differing roles in each hospital. Physician participants perceived that the design of code status options shapes communication and decision-making practices about resuscitation and life-sustaining treatments, especially at the end of life. We identified four potential mechanisms through which this may occur: framing conversations, prompting decisions, shaping inferences and creating categories.CONCLUSIONS: There are substantive differences in the design of hospital code status options that may contribute to known variability in end-of-life care and treatment intensity among US hospitals. Our framework can be used to design hospital code status options or evaluate their function.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjqs-2020-011222

    View details for PubMedID 33082165

  • "I don't want to be Henrietta Lacks": diverse patient perspectives on donating biospecimens for precision medicine research. Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics Lee, S. S., Cho, M. K., Kraft, S. A., Varsava, N., Gillespie, K., Ormond, K. E., Wilfond, B. S., Magnus, D. 2018

    Abstract

    PURPOSE: To determine whether patients distinguish between biospecimens and electronic health records (EHRs) when considering research participation to inform research protections.METHODS: We conducted 20 focus groups with individuals who identified as African American, Hispanic, Chinese, South Asian, and non-Hispanic white on the collection of biospecimens and EHR data for research.RESULTS: Our study found that many participants did not distinguish between biospecimens and EHR data. However, some participants identified specific concerns about biospecimens. These included the need for special care and respect for biospecimens due to enduring connections between the body and identity; the potential for unacceptable future research, specifically the prospect of human cloning; heightened privacy risks; and the potential for unjust corporate profiteering. Among those who distinguished biospecimens from EHR data, many supported separate consent processes and would limit their own participation to EHR data.CONCLUSION: Considering that the potential misuse of EHR data is as great as, if not greater than, for biospecimens, more research is needed to understand how attitudes differ between biospecimens and EHR data across diverse populations. Such research should explore mechanisms beyond consent that can address diverse values, perspectives, and misconceptions about sources of patient information to build trust in research relationships.

    View details for PubMedID 29887604

  • Implementing Machine Learning in Health Care - Addressing Ethical Challenges NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Char, D. S., Shah, N. H., Magnus, D. 2018; 378 (11): 981–83

    View details for PubMedID 29539284

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5962261

Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences (General Psychiatry and Psychology-Adult) and, by courtesy, of Emergency Medicine and of Medicine at the Stanford University Medical Center and, by courtesy, of Law

Publications

  • The Psychosocial Assessment of Transplant Candidates: Internal Consistency, Interrater Reliability, and Content Validity of the Thai Version of the Stanford Integrated Psychosocial Assessment for Transplantation (SIPAT-Thai Version). Transplantation proceedings Thisayakorn, P., Sakunwetsa, D., Tangwongchai, S., Jirakran, K., Lolak, S., Maldonado, J. R. 2021

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Standardized pretransplant psychosocial assessment is critically needed in Thailand to optimize medical and psychosocial outcomes after transplantation. The Stanford Integrated Psychosocial Assessment for Transplantation (SIPAT) is a comprehensive and evidence-based tool that has demonstrated excellent reliability and predictive value in many psychosocial transplant studies. We translated the SIPAT into Thai and explored the validity and reliability of the SIPAT-Thai version among Thai transplant recipients.METHODS: We translated the original SIPAT into Thai following the World Health Organization's standard forward-backward translation procedure and then cross-sectionally assessed its validity and reliability in 110 Thai solid organ transplant candidates. The correlation between background data, total, and sectional scoring results of SIPAT-Thai were also analyzed.RESULTS: The SIPAT-Thai demonstrated moderate to good reliability, which was represented by internal consistency with a Cronbach alpha of .751 and interrater reliability with a kappa value at 0.767. The index of item-objective congruence value was 0.94, indicating good the content validity.CONCLUSIONS: The SIPAT-Thai was systematically translated and shown to have acceptable validity and a moderate to good reliability index. The use of the SIPAT-Thai would provide a standardized, evidence-based, and a more systematic pretransplant psychosocial evaluation process for transplant candidates in Thailand.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.transproceed.2021.02.013

    View details for PubMedID 33741202

  • Clinical Profile and Length of Hospital Stay in a Sample of Psychogeriatric Patients Referred to Consultation Liaison Psychiatric Unit. Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania) Barra, B. J., Varela, L. F., Maldonado, J. R., Calvo, P., Bastidas, A., Sanchez, R., Pintor, L. 2021; 57 (3)

    Abstract

    Background and objectives: There has been a recent increase in older patients admitted to general hospitals. A significant percentage of hospitalized older patients are ≥75 years old, which differ from the patients aged 65 to 74 years old in terms of functional status at patient discharge. This study aims to compare sociodemographic, clinical features, and factors associated with length of hospital stay in youngest-old and oldest-old populations of inpatients referred to the consultation liaison psychiatry unit. Material and methods: This is an observational, cross-sectional, retrospective, and comparative study. We obtained data from a sample of 1017 patients (≥65 years) admitted to a general hospital and referred from different services (medicine, surgery, etc.) to the consultation liaison psychiatry unit. The sample was divided into two groups of patients: youngest-old (65-74 years) and oldest-old (≥75 years). Psychiatric evaluations were performed while the patients were on wards at the hospital. Psychopharmacs were started as needed. A comparative analysis was carried out and predictive factors related to length of hospital stay were calculated. Results: The reference rate to consultation liaison psychiatry unit was 1.45% of the total older patients hospitalized. Our study demonstrates differences between the groups of older people: the oldest-old group were mainly female (p < 0.001), had more previous psychiatric diagnoses (p < 0.001), physical disabilities (p = 0.02), and neurocognitive disorders (p < 0.001), they used more antipsychotics (p < 0.001), and more frequently had a discharge disposition to a nursing home (p = 0.036). The presence of physical disability (beta = 0.07, p < 0.001) and logtime to referral to consultation liaison psychiatry unit (beta = 0.58, p < 0.001) were associated with increased length of hospital stay. Conclusions: Youngest-old and oldest-old people should be considered as two different types of patients when we consider clinical features. The time to referral to consultation liaison psychiatry unit seems to be a relevant factor associated with length of hospital stay.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/medicina57030256

    View details for PubMedID 33799510

  • COVID-19-Associated Hyperactive Intensive Care Unit Delirium With Proposed Pathophysiology and Treatment: A Case Report PSYCHOSOMATICS Sher, Y., Rabkin, B., Maldonado, J. R., Mohabir, P. 2020; 61 (5): 544–50
Assistant Professor (Research) of Pediatrics (Biomedical Ethics)

Publications

  • Dimensions of Research-Participant Interaction: Engagement is Not a Replacement for Consent. The Journal of law, medicine & ethics : a journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics Shearer, E., Martinez, N., Magnus, D. 2020; 48 (1): 183–84

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1073110520917008

    View details for PubMedID 32342787

  • What Are Important Ethical Implications of Using Facial Recognition Technology in Health Care? AMA journal of ethics Martinez-Martin, N. 2019; 21 (2): E180–187

    Abstract

    Applications of facial recognition technology (FRT) in health care settings have been developed to identify and monitor patients as well as to diagnose genetic, medical, and behavioral conditions. The use of FRT in health care suggests the importance of informed consent, data input and analysis quality, effective communication about incidental findings, and potential influence on patient-clinician relationships. Privacy and data protection are thought to present challenges for the use of FRT for health applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/amajethics.2019.180

    View details for PubMedID 30794128

  • Data mining for health: staking out the ethical territory of digital phenotyping NPJ DIGITAL MEDICINE Martinez-Martin, N., Insel, T. R., Dagum, P., Greely, H. T., Cho, M. K. 2018; 1
Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Biomedical Ethics

Publications

Clinical Professor, Genetics

Publications

  • Improving reporting standards for polygenic scores in risk prediction studies. Nature Wand, H., Lambert, S. A., Tamburro, C., Iacocca, M. A., O'Sullivan, J. W., Sillari, C., Kullo, I. J., Rowley, R., Dron, J. S., Brockman, D., Venner, E., McCarthy, M. I., Antoniou, A. C., Easton, D. F., Hegele, R. A., Khera, A. V., Chatterjee, N., Kooperberg, C., Edwards, K., Vlessis, K., Kinnear, K., Danesh, J. N., Parkinson, H., Ramos, E. M., Roberts, M. C., Ormond, K. E., Khoury, M. J., Janssens, A. C., Goddard, K. A., Kraft, P., MacArthur, J. A., Inouye, M., Wojcik, G. L. 2021; 591 (7849): 211–19

    Abstract

    Polygenic risk scores (PRSs), which often aggregate results from genome-wide association studies, can bridge the gap between initial discovery efforts and clinical applications for the estimation of disease risk using genetics. However, there is notable heterogeneity in the application and reporting of these risk scores, which hinders the translation of PRSs into clinical care. Here, in a collaboration between the Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) Complex Disease Working Group and the Polygenic Score (PGS) Catalog, we present the Polygenic Risk Score Reporting Standards (PRS-RS), in which we update the Genetic Risk Prediction Studies (GRIPS) Statement to reflect the present state of the field. Drawing on the input of experts in epidemiology, statistics, disease-specific applications, implementation and policy, this comprehensive reporting framework defines the minimal information that is needed to interpret and evaluate PRSs, especially with respect to downstream clinical applications. Items span detailed descriptions of study populations, statistical methods for the development and validation of PRSs and considerations for the potential limitations of these scores. In addition, we emphasize the need for data availability and transparency, and we encourage researchers to deposit and share PRSs through the PGS Catalog to facilitate reproducibility and comparative benchmarking. By providing these criteria in a structured format that builds on existing standards and ontologies, the use of this framework in publishing PRSs will facilitate translation into clinical care and progress towards defining best practice.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-021-03243-6

    View details for PubMedID 33692554

  • Clinical Genetics Lacks Standard Definitions and Protocols for the Collection and Use of Diversity Measures. American journal of human genetics Popejoy, A. B., Crooks, K. R., Fullerton, S. M., Hindorff, L. A., Hooker, G. W., Koenig, B. A., Pino, N., Ramos, E. M., Ritter, D. I., Wand, H., Wright, M. W., Yudell, M., Zou, J. Y., Plon, S. E., Bustamante, C. D., Ormond, K. E., Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) Ancestry and Diversity Working Group 2020

    Abstract

    Genetics researchers and clinical professionals rely on diversity measures such as race, ethnicity, and ancestry (REA) to stratify study participants and patients for a variety of applications in research and precision medicine. However, there are no comprehensive, widely accepted standards or guidelines for collecting and using such data in clinical genetics practice. Two NIH-funded research consortia, the Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) and Clinical Sequencing Evidence-generating Research (CSER), have partnered to address this issue and report how REA are currently collected, conceptualized, and used. Surveying clinical genetics professionals and researchers (n = 448), we found heterogeneity in the way REA are perceived, defined, and measured, with variation in the perceived importance of REA in both clinical and research settings. The majority of respondents (>55%) felt that REA are at least somewhat important for clinical variant interpretation, ordering genetic tests, and communicating results to patients. However, there was no consensus on the relevance of REA, including how each of these measures should be used in different scenarios and what information they can convey in the context of human genetics. A lack of common definitions and applications of REA across the precision medicine pipeline may contribute to inconsistencies in data collection, missing or inaccurate classifications, and misleading or inconclusive results. Thus, our findings support the need for standardization and harmonization of REA data collection and use in clinical genetics and precision health research.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.05.005

    View details for PubMedID 32504544

  • Informed Consent in the Genomics Era. Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine Rego, S., Grove, M. E., Cho, M. K., Ormond, K. E. 2019

    Abstract

    Informed consent, the process of gathering autonomous authorization for a medical intervention or medical research participation, is a fundamental component of medical practice. Medical informed consent assumes decision-making capacity, voluntariness, comprehension, and adequate information. The increasing use of genetic testing, particularly genomic sequencing, in clinical and research settings has presented many new challenges for clinicians and researchers when obtaining informed consent. Many of these challenges revolve around the need for patient comprehension of sufficient information. Genomic sequencing is complex-all of the possible results are too numerous to explain, and many of the risks and benefits remain unknown. Thus, historical standards of consent are difficult to apply. Alternative models of consent have been proposed to increase patient understanding, and several have empirically demonstrated effectiveness. However, there is still a striking lack of consensus in the genetics community about what constitutes informed consent in the context of genomic sequencing. Multiple approaches are needed to address this challenge, including consensus building around standards, targeted use of genetic counselors in nongenetics clinics in which genomic testing is ordered, and the development and testing of alternative models for obtaining informed consent.

    View details for DOI 10.1101/cshperspect.a036582

    View details for PubMedID 31570382

The Colleen and Robert Haas Professor in Medicine and Biomedical Ethics, Emeritus

Publications

  • Advertising, patient decision making, and self-referral for computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging ARCHIVES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Illes, J., Kann, D., Karetsky, K., Letourneau, P., Raffin, T. A., Schraedley-Desmond, P., Koenig, B. A., Atlas, S. W. 2004; 164 (22): 2415-2419

    Abstract

    Self-referred imaging is one of the latest health care services to be marketed directly to consumers. Most aspects of these services are unregulated, and little is known about the messages in advertising used to attract potential consumers. We conducted a detailed analysis of print advertisements and informational brochures for self-referred imaging with respect to themes, content, accuracy, and emotional valence.Forty print advertisements from US newspapers around the country and 20 informational brochures were analyzed by 2 independent raters according to 7 major themes: health care technology; emotion, empowerment, and assurance; incentives; limited supporting evidence; popular appeal; statistics; and images. The Fisher exact test was used to identify significant differences in information content.Both the advertisements and the brochures emphasized health care and technology information and provided assurances of good health and incentives to self-refer. These materials also encouraged consumers to seek further information from company resources; virtually none referred to noncomplying sources of information or to the risks of having a scan. Images of people commonly portrayed European Americans. We found statistical differences between newspaper advertisements and mailed brochures for references to "prevalence of disease" (P<.001), "death" (P<.003), and "radiation" (P<.001). Statements lacking clear scientific evidence were identified in 38% of the advertisements (n = 15) and 25% of the brochures (n = 5).Direct-to-consumer marketing of self-referred imaging services, in both print advertisements and informational brochures, fails to provide prospective consumers with comprehensive balanced information vital to informed autonomous decision making. Professional guidelines and oversight for advertising and promotion of these services are needed.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225701900003

    View details for PubMedID 15596630

  • Discovery and disclosure of incidental findings in neuroimaging research 33rd Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Neuroscience Illes, J., Kirschen, M. P., Karetsky, K., Kelly, M., Saha, A., Desmond, J. E., Raffin, T. A., Glover, G. H., Atlas, S. W. JOHN WILEY & SONS INC. 2004: 743–47

    Abstract

    To examine different protocols for handling incidental findings on brain research MRIs, and provide a platform for establishing formal discussions of related ethical and policy issues.Corresponding authors identified from a database of peer-reviewed publications in 1991-2002 involving functional MRI (fMRI), alone or in combination with other imaging modalities, were invited to participate in this web-based survey. The survey asked questions regarding knowledge and handling of incidental findings, as well as characteristics of the scanning environment, training required, IRB protocol requirements, and neuroradiologist involvement.Seventy-four investigators who conduct MRI studies in the United States and abroad responded. Eighty-two percent (54/66) reported discovering incidental findings in their studies, such as arteriovenous malformations, brain tumors, and developmental abnormalities. Substantial variability was found in the procedures for handling and communicating findings to subjects, neuroradiologist involvement, personnel permitted to operate equipment, and training.Guidelines for minimum and optimum standards for detecting and communicating incidental findings on brain MRI research are needed.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.20180

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224762700001

    View details for PubMedID 15503329

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1506385

  • Chylothorax after heart/lung transplantation JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION Ziedalski, T. M., Raffin, T. A., Sze, D. Y., Mitchell, J. D., Robbins, R. C., Theodore, J., Faul, J. L. 2004; 23 (5): 627-631

    Abstract

    Chylothorax is a potentially serious complication of lung and heart-lung transplantation. This article describes the clinical course of chylothorax in 3 heart-lung allograft recipients. We discuss management options, including dietary modifications, octreotide infusion, thoracic duct ligation and embolization, and surgical pleurodesis. In addition, we describe the novel use of aminocaproic acid to reduce lymph flow. We propose a multidisciplinary approach for the management of chylothorax that includes both medical and surgical options.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221393700018

    View details for PubMedID 15135382

Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Biomedical Ethics

Publications

  • Ethics and Informatics in the Age of COVID-19: Challenges and Recommendations for Public Health Organization and Public Policy. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA Subbian, V., Solomonides, A., Clarkson, M., Rahimzadeh, V. N., Petersen, C., Schreiber, R., DeMuro, P. R., Dua, P., Goodman, K. W., Kaplan, B., Koppel, R., Lehmann, C. U., Pan, E., Senathirajah, Y. 2020

    Abstract

    The COVID-19 pandemic response in the United States has exposed significant gaps in information systems and processes to enable timely clinical and public health decision-making. Specifically, the use of informatics to mitigate the spread of SARS-CoV-2, support COVID-19 care delivery, and accelerate knowledge discovery bring to the forefront issues of privacy, surveillance, limits of state powers, and interoperability between public health and clinical information systems. Using a consensus building process, we critically analyze informatics-related ethical issues in light of the pandemic across three themes: (1) public health reporting and data sharing, (2) contact tracing and tracking, and (3) clinical scoring tools for critical care. We provide context and rationale for ethical considerations and recommendations that are actionable during the pandemic, and conclude with recommendations calling for long-term, broader change (beyond the pandemic) for public health organization and policy reform.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/jamia/ocaa188

    View details for PubMedID 32722749

  • Pros and cons of prosent as an alternative to traditional consent in medical research. Journal of medical ethics Rahimzadeh, V. N. 2020

    Abstract

    In their recent article, Porsdam Mann et al propose to share biomedical research data more widely, securely and efficiently using blockchain technologies.1 They present compelling arguments for how the blockchain presents both a technological innovation, and a deontologically grounded policy innovation to traditional research consent. Their proposal can be read in conversation with a rich body of evidence to suggest current consent processes are problematic on at least one of tripartite bases in biomedical research: that it be fully informed. This response attempts to further the author's discussion of social justice discourse in, and of their proposed prosent model to enhance engagement among under-represented and vulnerable populations in research, specifically. Motivating this response is the view that advancing technological capabilities is no doubt necessary, but on its own insufficient to reinvigorate distributive, procedural and social justice as guiding principles for con/prosent processes. I offer three pros and cons to consider in effort to deepen the model's commitments to social justice to historically marginalised groups in the biomedical research enterprise.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/medethics-2020-106443

    View details for PubMedID 32571849

  • Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues (ELSI) of Responsible Data Sharing Involving Children in Genomics: A Systematic Literature Review of Reasons. AJOB empirical bioethics Rahimzadeh, V. n., Knoppers, B. M., Bartlett, G. n. 2020: 1–13

    Abstract

    Progress in precision medicine relies on the access to, use of, and exchange of genomic and associated clinical data, including from children. The ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) of such data access, use, and exchange may be accentuated in the pediatric context due in part to the highly sensitive nature of genomic data, children's consent-related vulnerabilities, and uncertain risks of reidentification. Systematic analyses of the ELSI and scientific reasons for why and how genomic data may be shared responsibly are, however, limited. Methods: We conducted a modified systematic review of reasons according to Sofaer and Strech to examine the ELSI and scientific reasons for "responsible" sharing of children's genomic and associated clinical data. Empirical articles, commentaries, and data-sharing policies indexed in Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and BIOSIS were included in the analysis if they discussed ELSI and were published between 2003 and 2017 in English. Results: One hundred and fifty-one records met our inclusion criteria. We identified 11 unique reasons and 8 subreasons for why children's genomic data should or should not be shared. Enhancing the prospect of direct and indirect benefits and maximizing the utility of children's data were top reasons why data should be shared. Inadequate data privacy protection was the leading reason why it should not. We furthermore identified 8 reasons and 30 subreasons that support conditional data sharing, in which recontact for the continued use of children's data once they reach the age of majority was the most frequently endorsed condition. Conclusions: The complete list of ELSI reasons and responsible conditions provides an evidentiary basis upon which institutions can develop data-sharing policies. Institutions should encourage the sharing of children's data to advance genomic research, while heeding special reconsent and data protection mechanisms that may help mitigate uncertain longitudinal risks for children and families.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/23294515.2020.1818875

    View details for PubMedID 32975491

Adjunct Clinical Associate Professor, Pediatrics - Center for Biomedical Ethics
Professor of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine at the Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Health Care System

Publications

Associate Professor of Medicine (General Medical Disciplines) and, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health at the Stanford University Medical Center

Publications

  • Commonalities across computational workflows for uncovering explanatory variants in undiagnosed cases. Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics Kobren, S. N., Baldridge, D., Velinder, M., Krier, J. B., LeBlanc, K., Esteves, C., Pusey, B. N., Zuchner, S., Blue, E., Lee, H., Huang, A., Bastarache, L., Bican, A., Cogan, J., Marwaha, S., Alkelai, A., Murdock, D. R., Liu, P., Wegner, D. J., Paul, A. J., Undiagnosed Diseases Network, Sunyaev, S. R., Kohane, I. S., Acosta, M. T., Adam, M., Adams, D. R., Agrawal, P. B., Alejandro, M. E., Alvey, J., Amendola, L., Andrews, A., Ashley, E. A., Azamian, M. S., Bacino, C. A., Bademci, G., Baker, E., Balasubramanyam, A., Baldridge, D., Bale, J., Bamshad, M., Barbouth, D., Bayrak-Toydemir, P., Beck, A., Beggs, A. H., Behrens, E., Bejerano, G., Bennett, J., Berg-Rood, B., Bernstein, J. A., Berry, G. T., Bican, A., Bivona, S., Blue, E., Bohnsack, J., Bonnenmann, C., Bonner, D., Botto, L., Boyd, B., Briere, L. C., Brokamp, E., Brown, G., Burke, E. A., Burrage, L. C., Butte, M. J., Byers, P., Byrd, W. E., Carey, J., Carrasquillo, O., Chang, T. C., Chanprasert, S., Chao, H., Clark, G. D., Coakley, T. R., Cobban, L. A., Cogan, J. D., Coggins, M., Cole, F. S., Colley, H. A., Cooper, C. M., Cope, H., Craigen, W. J., Crouse, A. B., Cunningham, M., D'Souza, P., Dai, H., Dasari, S., Davis, J., Daya, J. G., Deardorff, M., Dell'Angelica, E. C., Dhar, S. U., Dipple, K., Doherty, D., Dorrani, N., Doss, A. L., Douine, E. D., Draper, D. D., Duncan, L., Earl, D., Eckstein, D. J., Emrick, L. T., Eng, C. M., Esteves, C., Falk, M., Fernandez, L., Ferreira, C., Fieg, E. L., Findley, L. C., Fisher, P. G., Fogel, B. L., Forghani, I., Fresard, L., Gahl, W. A., Glass, I., Gochuico, B., Godfrey, R. A., Golden-Grant, K., Goldman, A. M., Goldrich, M. P., Goldstein, D. B., Grajewski, A., Groden, C. A., Gutierrez, I., Hahn, S., Hamid, R., Hanchard, N. A., Hassey, K., Hayes, N., High, F., Hing, A., Hisama, F. M., Holm, I. A., Hom, J., Horike-Pyne, M., Huang, A., Huang, Y., Huryn, L., Isasi, R., Jamal, F., Jarvik, G. P., Jarvik, J., Jayadev, S., Karaviti, L., Kennedy, J., Kiley, D., Kohane, I. S., Kohler, J. N., Korrick, S., Kozuira, M., Krakow, D., Krasnewich, D. M., Kravets, E., Krier, J. B., LaMoure, G. L., Lalani, S. R., Lam, B., Lam, C., Lanpher, B. C., Lanza, I. R., Latham, L., LeBlanc, K., Lee, B. H., Lee, H., Levitt, R., Lewis, R. A., Lincoln, S. A., Liu, P., Liu, X. Z., Longo, N., Loo, S. K., Loscalzo, J., Maas, R. L., MacDowall, J., MacRae, C. A., Macnamara, E. F., Maduro, V. V., Majcherska, M. M., Mak, B. C., Malicdan, M. C., Mamounas, L. A., Manolio, T. A., Mao, R., Maravilla, K., Markello, T. C., Marom, R., Marth, G., Martin, B. A., Martin, M. G., Martinez-Agosto, J. A., Marwaha, S., McCauley, J., McConkie-Rosell, A., McCormack, C. E., McCray, A. T., McGee, E., Mefford, H., Merritt, J. L., Might, M., Mirzaa, G., Morava, E., Moretti, P. M., Moretti, P., Mosbrook-Davis, D., Mulvihill, J. J., Murdock, D. R., Nagy, A., Nakano-Okuno, M., Nath, A., Nelson, S. F., Newman, J. H., Nicholas, S. K., Nickerson, D., Nieves-Rodriguez, S., Novacic, D., Oglesbee, D., Orengo, J. P., Pace, L., Pak, S., Pallais, J. C., Palmer, C. G., Papp, J. C., Parker, N. H., Phillips, J. A., Posey, J. E., Potocki, L., Power, B., Pusey, B. N., Quinlan, A., Raja, A. N., Rao, D. A., Raskind, W., Renteria, G., Reuter, C. M., Rives, L., Robertson, A. K., Rodan, L. H., Rosenfeld, J. A., Rosenwasser, N., Rossignol, F., Ruzhnikov, M., Sacco, R., Sampson, J. B., Samson, S. L., Saporta, M., Schaechter, J., Schedl, T., Schoch, K., Scott, C. R., Scott, D. A., Shashi, V., Shin, J., Signer, R. H., Silverman, E. K., Sinsheimer, J. S., Sisco, K., Smith, E. C., Smith, K. S., Solem, E., Solnica-Krezel, L., Ben Solomon, S., Spillmann, R. C., Stoler, J. M., Sullivan, J. A., Sullivan, K., Sun, A., Sutton, S., Sweetser, D. A., Sybert, V., Tabor, H. K., Tan, A. L., Tan, Q. K., Tekin, M., Telischi, F., Thorson, W., Thurm, A., Tifft, C. J., Toro, C., Tran, A. A., Tucker, B. M., Urv, T. K., Vanderver, A., Velinder, M., Viskochil, D., Vogel, T. P., Wahl, C. E., Walker, M., Wallace, S., Walley, N. M., Walsh, C. A., Wambach, J., Wan, J., Wang, L., Wangler, M. F., Ward, P. A., Wegner, D., Wener, M., Wenger, T., Perry, K. W., Westerfield, M., Wheeler, M. T., Whitlock, J., Wolfe, L. A., Woods, J. D., Yamamoto, S., Yang, J., Yousef, M., Zastrow, D. B., Zein, W., Zhao, C., Zuchner, S. 2021

    Abstract

    PURPOSE: Genomic sequencing has become an increasingly powerful and relevant tool to be leveraged for the discovery of genetic aberrations underlying rare, Mendelian conditions. Although the computational tools incorporated into diagnostic workflows for this task are continually evolving and improving, we nevertheless sought to investigate commonalities across sequencing processing workflows to reveal consensus and standard practice tools and highlight exploratory analyses where technical and theoretical method improvements would be most impactful.METHODS: We collected details regarding the computational approaches used by a genetic testing laboratory and 11 clinical research sites in the United States participating in the Undiagnosed Diseases Network via meetings with bioinformaticians, online survey forms, and analyses of internal protocols.RESULTS: We found that tools for processing genomic sequencing data can be grouped into four distinct categories. Whereas well-established practices exist for initial variant calling and quality control steps, there is substantial divergence across sites in later stages for variant prioritization and multimodal data integration, demonstrating a diversity of approaches for solving the most mysterious undiagnosed cases.CONCLUSION: The largest differences across diagnostic workflows suggest that advances in structural variant detection, noncoding variant interpretation, and integration of additional biomedical data may be especially promising for solving chronically undiagnosed cases.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41436-020-01084-8

    View details for PubMedID 33580225

  • "It seems like COVID-19 now is the only disease present on Earth": living with a rare or undiagnosed disease during the COVID-19 pandemic. Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics Halley, M. C., Stanley, T. n., Maturi, J. n., Goldenberg, A. J., Bernstein, J. A., Wheeler, M. T., Tabor, H. K. 2021

    Abstract

    Patients with rare and undiagnosed diseases (RUDs) face significant health challenges, which may be exacerbated during the COVID-19 pandemic. The goal of this study was to identify specific impacts of the pandemic on RUD patients, and targets for improving support and health-care access.We conducted an online survey of RUD patients and their family members from 21 April to 8 June 2020, recruited from 76 Facebook groups for RUDs. Questions assessed patient characteristics and impacts of the pandemic on RUD diagnosis and management.Respondents (n = 413), including 274 RUD patients and 139 family members, were predominantly female and white, though income varied. Impacts of the pandemic included (1) barriers to accessing essential health care, (2) specific impacts of restrictive COVID-19 visitation policies on ability to advocate in health-care settings, (3) uncertainty and fear regarding COVID-19 risk, (4) exacerbated physical and mental health challenges, (5) magnified impacts of reduced educational and therapeutic services, and (6) unexpected positive changes due to the pandemic.There are specific, serious challenges affecting RUD patients and families during the COVID-19 pandemic. There is an urgent need to develop approaches to mitigate these challenges both during and beyond the pandemic.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41436-020-01069-7

    View details for PubMedID 33420343

  • Patient and family social media use surrounding a novel treatment for a rare genetic disease: a qualitative interview study. Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics Iyer, A. A., Barzilay, J. R., Tabor, H. K. 2020

    Abstract

    PURPOSE: Advances in gene therapy and precision medicine have led to a growing number of novel treatments for rare genetic diseases. Patients/families may lack access to up-to-date, accurate, and relevant information about these treatments. Social media offers one potentially important resource for these communities. Our goal was to understand how patients/families with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)-a rare genetic condition-used social media to share, consume, and evaluate information about the novel treatment nusinersen (Spinraza) following the drug's approval.METHODS: We conducted qualitative, semistructured interviews with 20 SMA patients or parents of patients, deriving themes and subthemes through content and thematic network analysis. Participants also completed a demographic survey.RESULTS: Participants described leveraging social media to learn about nusinersen treatment, make informed treatment decisions, and advocate for/access treatment. They also described critically evaluating the trustworthiness of nusinersen-related information on social media and the privacy risks of social media use.CONCLUSION: Patients/families used social media to navigate the new and dynamic landscape of nusinersen treatment for SMA, while attempting to mitigate misinformation and privacy risks. As new treatments become available, providers and patients/families may benefit from proactively discussing social media use, so as to maximize important benefits while minimizing risks.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41436-020-0890-6

    View details for PubMedID 32601388

Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Biomedical Ethics

Publications

  • "Race was something we didn't talk about": Racial Socialization in Asian American Families FAMILY RELATIONS Young, J. L., Kim, H., Golojuch, L. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1111/fare.12495

    View details for Web of Science ID 000568410600001

  • Waiting and "weighted down": the challenge of anticipatory loss for individuals and families with Li-Fraumeni Syndrome. Familial cancer Werner-Lin, A., Young, J. L., Wilsnack, C., Merrill, S. L., Groner, V., Greene, M. H., Khincha, P. P. 2020

    Abstract

    Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS) is characterized by risk of multiple primary malignancies in diverse sites, pediatric onset, near complete penetrance by age 70years, limited options for prevention, and substantial uncertainty regarding disease manifestation and prognosis. Forty-five families, including 117 individuals aged 13-81years, enrolled in the US National Cancer Institute's Li-Fraumeni Syndrome Study completed 66 interviews regarding their LFS experiences. An interdisciplinary team used modified grounded theory to examine family distress regarding expectations of loss and change due to likely cancer diagnoses, and the consequences of this likelihood across physical, social, and emotional domains. Disease-free periods were characterized by fearful anticipation of diagnosis or recurrence, uncertainty regarding post-treatment quality of life, and planning for shifts in family dynamics to enable caregiving. The chronicity of waiting for these changes incited dread and inhibited effective coping with the pragmatic, emotional, and existential challenges of the syndrome. Consequently, families reported high burden on roles and resources and limited guidance to prepare for, or achieve resolution with, grief. Anticipatory loss, the experience of bereavement prior to an expected change, distinguishes hereditary cancer risk from a sporadic diagnosis. Such grief is often incomplete in impact or meaning, subjected to rapid or profound change as conditions worsen, and poorly understood. In this study, losses were compounded by profound uncertainty, a chronic feature of LFS, which compromised mourning. Long-term engagement of mental health providers with bereavement training, in partnership with genetics providers, can provide invaluable educational and psychological support to families as they navigate these implacable challenges.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10689-020-00173-6

    View details for PubMedID 32222840

  • Health behavior change is related to management of cancer worry for families with Li-Fraumeni syndrome: "If you just change your diet, you're going to get cured" Wilsnack, C., Sleight, A., Young, J., Greene, M. H., Khincha, P. P., Groner, V., Werner-Lin, A. WILEY. 2020: 99–100