SCBE faculty and fellows publish often in leading journals. SCBE is also home to the editorial office of the American Journal of Bioethics (AJOB).


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Clinical Associate Professor, Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine Clinical Associate Professor (By courtesy), Pediatrics


  • Physician Unionization: Opportunities and Challenges for Anesthesiologists in the United States. Anesthesia and analgesia Hendrix, J. M., Burgart, A. M., Baker, E. B., Wolman, R. L., Kras, J. F. 2023


    Physician unionization is gaining traction in the United States, with <10% of practicing physicians now members, up from historically weak support. Factors that drive interest in unions include a decreased number of independent practitioners, an increase in workloads, and the erosion of autonomy. Approximately 56% of anesthesiologists are considered employees and may be eligible for union membership. Physician unions may provide higher wages, better working conditions, and legal protection. However, they also raise concerns about patient care and professionalism. This article discusses the legal and regulatory framework governing the unionization of physicians, benefits, challenges, and potential future developments. Continued analysis and debate are necessary to determine the optimal role of physician unions in the health care industry.

    View details for DOI 10.1213/ANE.0000000000006852

    View details for PubMedID 38091478

  • Recommendations for the use of pediatric data in artificial intelligence and machine learning ACCEPT-AI. NPJ digital medicine Muralidharan, V., Burgart, A., Daneshjou, R., Rose, S. 2023; 6 (1): 166


    ACCEPT-AI is a framework of recommendations for the safe inclusion of pediatric data in artificial intelligence and machine learning (AI/ML) research. It has been built on fundamental ethical principles of pediatric and AI research and incorporates age, consent, assent, communication, equity, protection of data, and technological considerations. ACCEPT-AI has been designed to guide researchers, clinicians, regulators, and policymakers and can be utilized as an independent tool, or adjunctively to existing AI/ML guidelines.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41746-023-00898-5

    View details for PubMedID 37673925

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10482936

  • Violence in the pain clinic: the hidden pandemic. Regional anesthesia and pain medicine Fawzy, Y., Siddiqui, Z., Narouze, S., Potru, S., Burgart, A. M., Udoji, M. A. 2023


    Workplace violence is any physical assault, threatening behavior or other verbal abuse directed toward persons at work or in the workplace. The incidence of workplace violence in healthcare settings in general and more specifically the pain clinic is thought to be underestimated due to hesitancy to report, lack of support from management and healthcare systems, and lack of institutional policies as it relates to violence from patients against healthcare workers. In the following article, we explore risk factors that place clinicians at risk of workplace violence, the cost and impact of workplace violence, how to build a violence prevention program and lastly how to recover from violence in the practice setting.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/rapm-2022-104308

    View details for PubMedID 36754543

Associate Professor of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine (Pediatric)


  • Artificial Intelligence in Perioperative Care: Opportunities and Challenges. Anesthesiology Han, L., Char, D. S., Aghaeepour, N. 2024; 141 (2): 379-387

    View details for DOI 10.1097/ALN.0000000000005013

    View details for PubMedID 38980160

  • Should SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination be Required for Heart Transplant Listing. The American journal of bioethics : AJOB Hollander, S., Char, D. 2024; 24 (7): 117-119

    View details for DOI 10.1080/15265161.2024.2353822

    View details for PubMedID 38913486

  • The effect of socioeconomic status on pediatric heart transplant outcomes at a single institution between 2013 and 2022. Pediatric transplantation Armstrong, A., Liang, J. W., Char, D., Hollander, S. A., Pyke-Grimm, K. A. 2024; 28 (2): e14695


    Disparities in pediatric heart transplant outcomes based on socioeconomic status (SES) have been previously observed. However, there is a need to reevaluate these associations in contemporary settings with advancements in transplant therapies and increased awareness of health disparities. This retrospective study aims to investigate the relationship between SES and outcomes for pediatric heart transplant patients.Data were collected through a chart review of 176 pediatric patients who underwent first orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) at a single center from 2013 to 2021. The Area Deprivation Index (ADI), a composite score based on U.S. census data, was used to quantify SES. Cox proportional hazards models and generalized linear models were employed to analyze the association between SES and graft failure, rejection rates, and hospitalization rates.The analysis revealed no statistically significant differences in graft failure rates, rejection rates, or hospitalization rates between low-SES and high-SES pediatric heart transplant patients for our single-center study.There may be patient education, policies, and social resources that can help mitigate SES-based healthcare disparities. Additional multi-center research is needed to identify post-transplant care that promotes patient equity.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/petr.14695

    View details for PubMedID 38433565

Professor (Research) of Pediatrics (Center for Biomedical Ethics) and of Medicine (Primary Care and Population Health)


  • "Ethical Responsibility Very Often Gets Drowned Out": A Qualitative Interview Study of Genome Scientists' and ELSI Scholars' Perspectives on the Role and Relevance of ELSI Expertise. AJOB empirical bioethics Martschenko, D. O., Grannuci, A., Cho, M. K. 2024: 1-12


    Genome scientists and Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of genetics (ELSI) scholars commonly inhabit distinct research cultures - utilizing different research methods, asking different research questions, and valuing different types of knowledge. Collaborations between these two communities are frequently called for to enhance the ethical conduct of genomics research. Yet, little has been done to qualitatively compare genome scientists' and ELSI scholars' perspectives on collaborations with each other and the factors that may affect these collaborations.20 semi-structured interviews with US-based genome scientists and ELSI scholars were conducted between June-September 2021. Interviews were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis.Genome scientists and ELSI scholars provided different understandings of the value and goals of their collaborations with each other. Genome scientists largely perceived ELSI expertise to be relevant for human subjects research; they described ELSI scholars as communicators who help the public and/or study participants better understand genomics research. In comparison, ELSI scholars viewed themselves as developing and implementing policies; they expressed frustration at how scientists can misunderstand their research methods or negatively perceive them. A combination of factors - both structural (e.g., criteria for promotion) and cultural (e.g., perceptions of what colleagues value and respect) - seemed to shape these diverging perspectives.Academic institutions, funders, and researchers commonly call for collaborations between genome scientists and ELSI scholars, but under-consider how their different conceptual frameworks, research methods, goals, norms, and values, conjoin to affect such partnerships. Acknowledging, exploring, and addressing the complex interplay between these factors could help to more effectively facilitate collaborations between genome scientists and ELSI scholars.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/23294515.2024.2370769

    View details for PubMedID 38916600

  • Understanding the Gap: A Cross-Sectional Survey of ELSI Scholars' Dissemination Practices and Translation Goals. AJOB empirical bioethics Dolan, D. D., Lee, R. H., Cho, M. K., Lee, S. S. 2024: 1-7


    Researchers engaged in the study of the ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) of genetics and genomics are often publicly funded and intend their work to be in the public interest. These features of U.S. ELSI research create an imperative for these scholars to demonstrate the public utility of their work and the expectation that they engage in research that has potential to inform policy or practice outcomes. In support of the fulfillment of this "translational mandate," the Center for ELSI Resources and Analysis (CERA), funded by the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), aims to facilitate community-informed, ELSI research results synthesis and dissemination. However, little is known about how ELSI research scholars define the goals of translation and imagine the intended users of their research findings.We distributed a Qualtrics survey to ELSI scholars that aimed to determine: (1) researchers' expectations for their research findings in relation to policy or practice outcomes, (2) the stakeholder groups researchers believe could benefit from their research findings, and (3) the methods researchers use to foster the uptake of their findings by those stakeholders.Most ELSI researchers surveyed thought there were stakeholders that could benefit from their research findings, including health care professionals, at-risk individuals, patients, and their family members, policy-makers, and researchers/scientists, and expected their research findings to inform the creation or revision of laws, policies, or practice guidelines. Most researchers planned to disseminate findings directly to relevant stakeholders, with fewer expecting dissemination support from research funders, universities, or other entities.The broad range of research topics, disciplines, and set of potential end users represented in ELSI reseach complicate the work of a knowledge broker. Nonetheless, the CERA can play an important role in disseminating ELSI results to relevant stakeholders. Further research should explore outreach mechanisms.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/23294515.2024.2355898

    View details for PubMedID 38805390

  • Spotlighting Structural Constraints on Decisions About Participation in Genomic and Precision Medicine. AJOB empirical bioethics Dolan, D. D., Cho, M. K., Lee, S. S. 2024: 1-6

    View details for DOI 10.1080/23294515.2024.2355893

    View details for PubMedID 38776221

Postdoctoral Scholar, Biomedical Ethics


  • Not in my AI: Moral engagement and disengagement in health care AI development. Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing. Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing Nichol, A. A., Halley, M. C., Federico, C. A., Cho, M. K., Sankar, P. L. 2023; 28: 496-506


    Machine learning predictive analytics (MLPA) are utilized increasingly in health care, but can pose harms to patients, clinicians, health systems, and the public. The dynamic nature of this technology creates unique challenges to evaluating safety and efficacy and minimizing harms. In response, regulators have proposed an approach that would shift more responsibility to MLPA developers for mitigating potential harms. To be effective, this approach requires MLPA developers to recognize, accept, and act on responsibility for mitigating harms. In interviews of 40 MLPA developers of health care applications in the United States, we found that a subset of ML developers made statements reflecting moral disengagement, representing several different potential rationales that could create distance between personal accountability and harms. However, we also found a different subset of ML developers who expressed recognition of their role in creating potential hazards, the moral weight of their design decisions, and a sense of responsibility for mitigating harms. We also found evidence of moral conflict and uncertainty about responsibility for averting harms as an individual developer working in a company. These findings suggest possible facilitators and barriers to the development of ethical ML that could act through encouragement of moral engagement or discouragement of moral disengagement. Regulatory approaches that depend on the ability of ML developers to recognize, accept, and act on responsibility for mitigating harms might have limited success without education and guidance for ML developers about the extent of their responsibilities and how to implement them.

    View details for PubMedID 36541003

  • Stronger regulation of AI in biomedicine. Science translational medicine Trotsyuk, A. A., Federico, C. A., Cho, M. K., Altman, R. B., Magnus, D. 2023; 15 (713): eadi0336


    Regulatory agencies need to ensure the safety and equity of AI in biomedicine, and the time to do so is now.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.adi0336

    View details for PubMedID 37703349

  • Ethical and epistemic issues in the design and conduct of pragmatic stepped-wedge cluster randomized clinical trials. Contemporary clinical trials Federico, C. A., Heagerty, P. J., Lantos, J., O'Rourke, P., Rahimzadeh, V., Sugarman, J., Weinfurt, K., Wendler, D., Wilfond, B. S., Magnus, D. 2022: 106703


    Stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial (SW-CRT) designs are increasingly employed in pragmatic research; they differ from traditional parallel cluster randomized trials in which an intervention is delivered to a subset of clusters, but not to all. In a SW-CRT, all clusters receive the intervention under investigation by the end of the study. This approach is thought to avoid ethical concerns about the denial of a desired intervention to participants in control groups. Such concerns have been cited in the literature as a primary motivation for choosing SW-CRT design, however SW-CRTs raise additional ethical concerns related to the delayed implementation of an intervention and consent. Yet, PCT investigators may choose SW-CRT designs simply because they are concerned that other study designs are infeasible. In this paper, we examine justifications for the use of SW-CRT study design, over other designs, by drawing on the experience of the National Institutes of Health's Health Care Systems Research Collaboratory (NIH Collaboratory) with five pragmatic SW-CRTs. We found that decisions to use SW-CRT design were justified by practical and epistemic reasons rather than ethical ones. These include concerns about feasibility, the heterogeneity of cluster characteristics, and the desire for simultaneous clinical evaluation and implementation. In this paper we compare the potential benefits of SW-CRTs against the ethical and epistemic challenges brought forth by the design and suggest that the choice of SW-CRT design must balance epistemic, feasibility and ethical justifications. Moreover, given their complexity, such studies need rigorous and informed ethical oversight.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cct.2022.106703

    View details for PubMedID 35176501

Deane F. and Kate Edelman Johnson Professor of Law and, Professor, by courtesy, of Genetics


  • Neuroscience and the Criminal Justice System ANNUAL REVIEW OF CRIMINOLOGY, VOL 2 Greely, H. T., Farahany, N. A., Petersilia, J., Sampson, R. J. 2019; 2: 451–71
  • Neuroethics Guiding Principles for the NIH BRAIN Initiative. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience Greely, H. T., Grady, C., Ramos, K. M., Chiong, W., Eberwine, J., Farahany, N. A., Johnson, L. S., Hyman, B. T., Hyman, S. E., Rommelfanger, K. S., Serrano, E. E. 2018; 38 (50): 10586–88

    View details for DOI 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2077-18.2018

    View details for PubMedID 30541767

  • The ethics of experimenting with human brain tissue. Nature Farahany, N. A., Greely, H. T., Hyman, S. n., Koch, C. n., Grady, C. n., Pașca, S. P., Sestan, N. n., Arlotta, P. n., Bernat, J. L., Ting, J. n., Lunshof, J. E., Iyer, E. P., Hyun, I. n., Capestany, B. H., Church, G. M., Huang, H. n., Song, H. n. 2018; 556 (7702): 429–32

    View details for DOI 10.1038/d41586-018-04813-x

    View details for PubMedID 29691509

Assistant Professor (Research) of Pediatrics (Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics)


  • Large-scale mutational analysis identifies UNC93B1 variants that drive TLR-mediated autoimmunity in mice and humans. The Journal of experimental medicine Rael, V. E., Yano, J. A., Huizar, J. P., Slayden, L. C., Weiss, M. A., Turcotte, E. A., Terry, J. M., Zuo, W., Thiffault, I., Pastinen, T., Farrow, E. G., Jenkins, J. L., Becker, M. L., Wong, S. C., Stevens, A. M., Otten, C., Allenspach, E. J., Bonner, D. E., Bernstein, J. A., Wheeler, M. T., Saxton, R. A., Undiagnosed Diseases Network, Liu, B., Majer, O., Barton, G. M., Acosta, M. T., Adams, D. R., Alvarez, R. L., Alvey, J., Allworth, A., Andrews, A., Ashley, E. A., Afzali, B., Bacino, C. A., Bademci, G., Balasubramanyam, A., Baldridge, D., Bale, J., Bamshad, M., Barbouth, D., Bayrak-Toydemir, P., Beck, A., Beggs, A. H., Behrens, E., Bejerano, G., Bellen, H. J., Bennett, J., Bernstein, J. A., Berry, G. T., Bican, A., Bivona, S., Blue, E., Bohnsack, J., Bonner, D., Botto, L., Briere, L. C., Brown, G., Burke, E. A., Burrage, L. C., Butte, M. J., Byers, P., Byrd, W. E., Carey, J., Cassini, T., Chanprasert, S., Chao, H., Chinn, I., Clark, G. D., Coakley, T. R., Cobban, L. A., Cogan, J. D., Coggins, M., Cole, F. S., Colley, H. A., Corona, R., Craigen, W. J., Crouse, A. B., Cunningham, M., D'Souza, P., Dai, H., Dasari, S., Davis, J., Dayal, J. G., Delgado, M., Dell'Angelica, E. C., Dipple, K., Doherty, D., Dorrani, N., Doss, A. L., Douine, E. D., Earl, D., Eckstein, D. J., Emrick, L. T., Eng, C. M., Falk, M., Fieg, E. L., Fisher, P. G., Fogel, B. L., Fu, J., Gahl, W. A., Glass, I., Goddard, P. C., Godfrey, R. A., Gropman, A., Halley, M. C., Hamid, R., Hanchard, N., Hassey, K., Hayes, N., High, F., Hing, A., Hisama, F. M., Holm, I. A., Hom, J., Horike-Pyne, M., Huang, A., Huang, Y., Hutchison, S., Introne, W., Izumi, K., Jarvik, G. P., Jarvik, J., Jayadev, S., Jean-Marie, O., Jobanputra, V., Kaitryn, E., Ketkar, S., Kiley, D., Kilich, G., Kobren, S. N., Kohane, I. S., Kohler, J. N., Korrick, S., Krakow, D., Krasnewich, D. M., Kravets, E., Lalani, S. R., Lam, C., Lanpher, B. C., Lanza, I. R., LeBlanc, K., Lee, B. H., Lewis, R. A., Liu, P., Longo, N., Loo, S. K., Loscalzo, J., Maas, R. L., Macnamara, E. F., MacRae, C. A., Maduro, V. V., Maghiro, A., Mahoney, R., Malicdan, M. C., Mamounas, L. A., Manolio, T. A., Mao, R., Marom, R., Marth, G., Martin, B. A., Martin, M. G., Martinez-Agosto, J. A., Marwaha, S., McConkie-Rosell, A., McCray, A. T., McGee, E., Might, M., Mikati, M., Miller, D., Mirzaa, G., Morava, E., Moretti, P., Morimoto, M., Mulvihill, J. J., Nakano-Okuno, M., Nelson, S. F., Nieves-Rodriguez, S., Novacic, D., Oglesbee, D., Orengo, J. P., Pace, L., Pak, S., Pallais, J. C., Papp, J. C., Parker, N. H., Petcharet, L., Phillips, J. A., Posey, J. E., Potocki, L., Pusey Swerdzewski, B. N., Quinlan, A., Rao, D. A., Raper, A., Raskind, W., Renteria, G., Reuter, C. M., Rives, L., Robertson, A. K., Rodan, L. H., Rosenfeld, J. A., Rosenthal, E., Rossignol, F., Ruzhnikov, M., Sabaii, M., Sampson, J. B., Schedl, T., Schoch, K., Scott, D. A., Seto, E., Sharma, P., Shashi, V., Shelkowitz, E., Sheppeard, S., Shin, J., Silverman, E. K., Sinsheimer, J. S., Sisco, K., Smith, K. S., Solnica-Krezel, L., Solomon, B., Spillmann, R. C., Stergachis, A., Stoler, J. M., Sullivan, K., Sutton, S., Sweetser, D. A., Sybert, V., Tabor, H. K., Tan, Q. K., Tan, A. L., Tarakad, A., Taylor, H., Tekin, M., Thorson, W., Tifft, C. J., Toro, C., Tran, A. A., Ungar, R. A., Urv, T. K., Vanderver, A., Velinder, M., Viskochil, D., Vogel, T. P., Wahl, C. E., Walker, M., Walley, N. M., Wambach, J., Wan, J., Wang, L., Wangler, M. F., Ward, P. A., Wegner, D., Hubshman, M. W., Wener, M., Wenger, T., Westerfield, M., Wheeler, M. T., Whitlock, J., Wolfe, L. A., Worley, K., Yamamoto, S., Zhang, Z., Zuchner, S. 2024; 221 (8)


    Nucleic acid-sensing Toll-like receptors (TLR) 3, 7/8, and 9 are key innate immune sensors whose activities must be tightly regulated to prevent systemic autoimmune or autoinflammatory disease or virus-associated immunopathology. Here, we report a systematic scanning-alanine mutagenesis screen of all cytosolic and luminal residues of the TLR chaperone protein UNC93B1, which identified both negative and positive regulatory regions affecting TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 responses. We subsequently identified two families harboring heterozygous coding mutations in UNC93B1, UNC93B1+/T93I and UNC93B1+/R336C, both in key negative regulatory regions identified in our screen. These patients presented with cutaneous tumid lupus and juvenile idiopathic arthritis plus neuroinflammatory disease, respectively. Disruption of UNC93B1-mediated regulation by these mutations led to enhanced TLR7/8 responses, and both variants resulted in systemic autoimmune or inflammatory disease when introduced into mice via genome editing. Altogether, our results implicate the UNC93B1-TLR7/8 axis in human monogenic autoimmune diseases and provide a functional resource to assess the impact of yet-to-be-reported UNC93B1 mutations.

    View details for DOI 10.1084/jem.20232005

    View details for PubMedID 38780621

  • Loss of function of FAM177A1, a Golgi complex localized protein, causes a novel neurodevelopmental disorder. Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics Kohler, J. N., Legro, N. R., Baldridge, D., Shin, J., Bowman, A., Ugur, B., Jackstadt, M. M., Shriver, L. P., Patti, G. J., Zhang, B., Feng, W., McAdow, A. R., Goddard, P., Ungar, R. A., Jensen, T., Smith, K. S., Fresard, L., Alvarez, R., Bonner, D., Reuter, C. M., McCormack, C., Kravets, E., Marwaha, S., Holt, J. M., Worthey, E., Ashley, E. A., Montgomery, S. B., Fisher, P., Postlethwait, J., De Camilli, P., Solnica-Krezel, L., Bernstein, J. A., Wheeler, M. T. 2024: 101166


    The function of FAM177A1 and its relationship to human disease is largely unknown. Recent studies have demonstrated FAM177A1 to be a critical immune-associated gene. One previous case study has linked FAM177A1 to a neurodevelopmental disorder in four siblings.We identified five individuals from three unrelated families with biallelic variants in FAM177A1. The physiological function of FAM177A1 was studied in a zebrafish model organism and human cell lines with loss-of-function variants similar to the affected cohort.These individuals share a characteristic phenotype defined by macrocephaly, global developmental delay, intellectual disability, seizures, behavioral abnormalities, hypotonia, and gait disturbance. We show that FAM177A1 localizes to the Golgi complex in mammalian and zebrafish cells. Intersection of the RNA-seq and metabolomic datasets from FAM177A1-deficient human fibroblasts and whole zebrafish larvae demonstrated dysregulation of pathways associated with apoptosis, inflammation, and negative regulation of cell proliferation.Our data sheds light on the emerging function of FAM177A1 and defines FAM177A1-related neurodevelopmental disorder as a new clinical entity.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.gim.2024.101166

    View details for PubMedID 38767059

  • Career flexibility for PAs: What makes switching specialties successful? JAAPA : official journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants Ward-Lev, E., Kuriakose, C., Navoa, J. J., Halley, M. 2024


    ABSTRACT: Switching specialties is common among physician associates/assistants (PAs) and important in combating burnout. Despite this, little is known about the PA experience with switching specialties. This study sought to identify factors associated with successfully switching specialties using semistructured interviews with PAs and hiring managers. Participants reported that switching specialties was initially challenging for managers and PAs because of insufficient onboarding and unrealistic expectations, but they also reported that they were generally satisfied with long-term outcomes. Our findings suggest that PAs hoping to switch specialties may want to focus on building a professional network, identifying areas where they can highlight relevant experience, and demonstrating their intent to remain in that role. Hiring managers could benefit from considering their hiring practices and tailoring onboarding expectations for new hires.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.JAA.0000000000000004

    View details for PubMedID 38595169

Clinical Professor, Medicine - Primary Care and Population Health


  • Education About Specialty Palliative Care Among Non-Healthcare Workers: A Systematic Review. Journal of pain and symptom management Smith, G. M., Singh, N., Hui, F., Sossenheimer, P. H., Hannah, J. M., Romano, P., Wong, H. C., Heidari, S. N., Harman, S. M. 2023


    Despite the expansion of palliative care (PC) services, the public has little knowledge and holds misperceptions about PC, creating barriers to accessing timely specialty PC.To systematically review the evidence regarding the efficacy of educational interventions to improve knowledge and attitudes about PC among non-healthcare workers.We searched five databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, CIANHL, Web of Science, and Scopus) for studies investigating educational interventions about specialty PC in adults who identified as patients, caregivers, or members of the public. We included studies that were available in English and had a comparator group. We excluded studies that only sampled health professionals or children. We used the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool to assess quality and risk of bias.Of 12,420 records identified, we screened 5,948 abstracts and assessed 526 full texts for eligibility. 21 articles were extracted for analysis, representing 20 unique educational interventions. Common methodologies included quasi-experimental (9, 45%), randomized controlled trial (4, 20%), and non-randomized trial (2, 10%). Common components of the educational interventions included video presentations (9, 45%), written materials (8, 40%), and lectures (4, 20%). Content included definition (14, 70%) and philosophy (14, 70%) of PC, distinctions between PC and hospice (11, 55%), and eligibility for PC (11, 55%). Fourteen (70%) interventions showed statistically significant positive differences in either knowledge or attitudes about PC.While educational interventions can positively impact knowledge and attitudes about PC among non-healthcare workers, more research is needed to inform the design, delivery, and evaluation of interventions to increase knowledge and attitudes about PC.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2023.09.023

    View details for PubMedID 37797678

  • Designing Code Status Orders that Convey Patient Preferences for Emergency Intubation: A Qualitative Assessment Batten, J., Blythe, J., Shearer, E., Dzeng, E., Cotler, M., Porter-Williamson, K., Kayser, J., Harman, S., Magnus, D., Wieten, S. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2023: 170
  • "No Escalation of Treatment" Designations: A Multi-Institutional Exploratory Qualitative Study. Chest Batten, J. N., Blythe, J. A., Wieten, S. E., Dzeng, E., Kruse, K. E., Cotler, M. P., Porter-Williamson, K., Kayser, J. B., Harman, S. M., Magnus, D. 2022


    BACKGROUND: No Escalation of Treatment (NoET) designations are used in intensive care units internationally to limit treatment for critically ill patients. However, they are the subject of debate in the literature and have not been qualitatively studied.QUESTION: How do physicians understand and perceive NoET designations, especially with regards to their utility and associated challenges? What mechanisms do hospitals provide to facilitate the use of NoET designations?STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Qualitative study at seven United States hospitals, employing semi-structured interviews with thirty physicians and review of relevant institutional records (e.g., hospital policies, screenshots of ordering menus in the electronic health record).RESULTS: At all hospitals, participants reported the use of NoET designations, which were understood to mean that providers should withhold new or higher-intensity interventions ("escalations") but not withdraw ongoing interventions. Three hospitals provided a specific mechanism for designating a patient as NoET (e.g., a DNR/Do-Not-Escalate code status order); at the remaining hospitals, a variety of informal methods (e.g., verbal handoffs) were used. We identified five functions of NoET designations: (1) Defining an intermediate point of treatment limitation, (2) Helping physicians navigate pre-arrest clinical decompensations, (3) Helping surrogate decision makers transition toward comfort care, (4) Preventing patient harm from invasive measures, and (5) Conserving critical care resources. Across hospitals, participants reported implementation challenges related to the ambiguity in meaning of NoET designations.INTERPRETATION: Despite ongoing debate, NoET designations are used in a varied sample of hospitals and are perceived as having multiple functions, suggesting they may fulfill an important need in the care of critically ill patients, especially at the end of life. The use of NoET designations can be improved through the implementation of a formal mechanism that encourages consistency across providers and clarifies the meaning of "escalation" for each patient.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.chest.2022.08.2211

    View details for PubMedID 36007596

Sr Research Scholar, Pediatrics - Center for Biomedical Ethics


  • Excavating the Personal Genome: The Good Biocitizen in the Age of Precision Health HASTINGS CENTER REPORT Lee, S. 2020; 50: S54–S61


    The rise of genomic technologies has catalyzed shifts in the health care landscape through the commercialization of genome sequencing and testing services in the genomics marketplace. The development of consumer genomics into a growing array of information technologies aimed at collecting, curating, and broadly sharing personal data and biological materials reconstitutes the meaning of health and reframes patients into biocitizens. In this context, the good biocitizen is expected to assume personal responsibility for health through consumption of genomic information and acquiescence to public and private efforts at data surveillance and aggregation. These shifts raise fundamental questions about how competing interests of the public, the state, and corporate entities will be reconciled and what trade-offs are demanded for the promise of precision health.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/hast.1156

    View details for Web of Science ID 000543918300008

    View details for PubMedID 32597530

  • Integrating stakeholder feedback in translational genomics research: an ethnographic analysis of a study protocol's evolution. Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics Kraft, S. A., McMullen, C. n., Lindberg, N. M., Bui, D. n., Shipman, K. n., Anderson, K. n., Joseph, G. n., Duenas, D. M., Porter, K. M., Kauffman, T. L., Koomas, A. n., Ransom, C. L., Jackson, P. n., Goddard, K. A., Wilfond, B. S., Lee, S. S. 2020


    This study describes challenges faced while incorporating sometimes conflicting stakeholder feedback into study design and development of patient-facing materials for a translational genomics study aiming to reduce health disparities among diverse populations.We conducted an ethnographic analysis of study documents including summaries of patient advisory committee meetings and interviews, reflective field notes written by study team members, and correspondence with our institutional review board (IRB). Through this analysis, we identified cross-cutting challenges for incorporating stakeholder feedback into development of our recruitment, risk assessment, and informed consent processes and materials.Our analysis revealed three key challenges: (1) balancing precision and simplicity in the design of study materials, (2) providing clinical care within the research context, and (3) emphasizing potential study benefits versus risks and limitations.While involving patient stakeholders in study design and materials development can increase inclusivity and responsiveness to patient needs, patient feedback may conflict with that of content area experts on the research team and IRBs who are tasked with overseeing the research. Our analysis highlights the need for further empirical research about ethical challenges when incorporating patient feedback into study design, and for dialogue with genomic researchers and IRB representatives about these issues.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41436-020-0763-z

    View details for PubMedID 32089547

  • Obligations of the "Gift": Reciprocity and Responsibility in Precision Medicine. The American journal of bioethics : AJOB Lee, S. S. 2020: 1–15


    Precision medicine relies on data and biospecimens from participants who willingly offer their personal information on the promise that this act will ultimately result in knowledge that will improve human health. Drawing on anthropological framings of the "gift," this paper contextualizes participation in precision medicine as inextricable from social relationships and their ongoing ethical obligations. Going beyond altruism, reframing biospecimen and data collection in terms of socially regulated gift-giving recovers questions of responsibility and care. As opposed to conceiving participation in terms of donations that elide clinical labor critical to precision medicine, the gift metaphor underscores ethical commitments to reciprocity and responsibility. This demands confronting inequities in precision medicine, such as systemic bias and lack of affordability and access. A focus on justice in precision medicine that recognizes the sociality of the gift is a critical frontier for bioethics.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/15265161.2020.1851813

    View details for PubMedID 33325811

Thomas A. Raffin Professor of Medicine and Biomedical Ethics and Professor (Teaching) of Medicine (Primary Care and Population Health)


  • The Unsuccessful Effort to Revise the Uniform Determination of Death Act. JAMA Truog, R. D., Magnus, D. C. 2023


    This Viewpoint summarizes the major issues that led to the decision to draft a revision of the Uniform Determination of Death Act, the alternatives that were considered, why there was failure to reach consensus, and what this means for the future.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jama.2023.24475

    View details for PubMedID 38060232

  • Stronger regulation of AI in biomedicine. Science translational medicine Trotsyuk, A. A., Federico, C. A., Cho, M. K., Altman, R. B., Magnus, D. 2023; 15 (713): eadi0336


    Regulatory agencies need to ensure the safety and equity of AI in biomedicine, and the time to do so is now.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.adi0336

    View details for PubMedID 37703349

  • Revise the UDDA to Align the Law with Practice through Neuro-Respiratory Criteria. Neurology Omelianchuk, A., Bernat, J., Caplan, A., Greer, D., Lazaridis, C., Lewis, A., Pope, T., Ross, L. F., Magnus, D. 1800


    Although the Uniform Determination of Death Act (UDDA) has served as a model statute for 40 years, there is a growing recognition that the law must be updated. One issue being considered by the Uniform Law Commission's Drafting Committee to revise the UDDA is whether the text "all functions of the entire brain, including the brainstem" should be changed. Some argue that the absence of diabetes insipidus indicates that some brain functioning continues in many individuals who otherwise meet the "accepted medical standards" like the American Academy of Neurology's. The concern is that the legal criteria and the medical standards used to determine death by neurological criteria are not aligned. We argue for the revision of the UDDA to more accurately specify legal criteria which align with the medical standards: brain injury leading to permanent loss of a) the capacity for consciousness, b) the ability to breathe spontaneously, and c) brainstem reflexes. We term these criteria "neuro-respiratory criteria" and show that they are well-supported in the literature for physiological and social reasons justifying their use in the law.

    View details for DOI 10.1212/WNL.0000000000200024

    View details for PubMedID 35078943

John and Terry Levin Family Professor of Medicine and Professor, by courtesy, of Emergency Medicine and of Medicine


  • Dextroamphetamine as Adjunctive Pharmacotherapy for Aggression Secondary to Korsakoff Syndrome: A Case Report. Journal of the Academy of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry Gunther, M., Jiang, S., Maldonado, J. R. 2024

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaclp.2024.02.006

    View details for PubMedID 38417703

  • Thalamic deep brain stimulation in traumatic brain injury: a phase 1, randomized feasibility study. Nature medicine Schiff, N. D., Giacino, J. T., Butson, C. R., Choi, E. Y., Baker, J. L., O'Sullivan, K. P., Janson, A. P., Bergin, M., Bronte-Stewart, H. M., Chua, J., DeGeorge, L., Dikmen, S., Fogarty, A., Gerber, L. M., Krel, M., Maldonado, J., Radovan, M., Shah, S. A., Su, J., Temkin, N., Tourdias, T., Victor, J. D., Waters, A., Kolakowsky-Hayner, S. A., Fins, J. J., Machado, A. G., Rutt, B. K., Henderson, J. M. 2023


    Converging evidence indicates that impairments in executive function and information-processing speed limit quality of life and social reentry after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (msTBI). These deficits reflect dysfunction of frontostriatal networks for which the central lateral (CL) nucleus of the thalamus is a critical node. The primary objective of this feasibility study was to test the safety and efficacy of deep brain stimulation within the CL and the associated medial dorsal tegmental (CL/DTTm) tract.Six participants with msTBI, who were between 3 and 18 years post-injury, underwent surgery with electrode placement guided by imaging and subject-specific biophysical modeling to predict activation of the CL/DTTm tract. The primary efficacy measure was improvement in executive control indexed by processing speed on part B of the trail-making test.All six participants were safely implanted. Five participants completed the study and one was withdrawn for protocol non-compliance. Processing speed on part B of the trail-making test improved 15% to 52% from baseline, exceeding the 10% benchmark for improvement in all five cases.CL/DTTm deep brain stimulation can be safely applied and may improve executive control in patients with msTBI who are in the chronic phase of identifier: NCT02881151 .

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41591-023-02638-4

    View details for PubMedID 38049620

    View details for PubMedCentralID 8126422

  • Reliability and Validity of the Spanish Adaptation of the Stanford Proxy Test for Delirium (S-PTDsv) in Two Clinical Communities Infante-Reyes, S., Behn, A., Gonzalez, M., Pintor, L., Franco, E., Araya, P., Maldonado, J. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2023: S111-S112
Assistant Professor (Research) of Pediatrics (Biomedical Ethics) and, by courtesy, of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences (Child & Adolescent Psychiatry & Child Development)


  • Dimensions of Research-Participant Interaction: Engagement is Not a Replacement for Consent. The Journal of law, medicine & ethics : a journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics Shearer, E., Martinez, N., Magnus, D. 2020; 48 (1): 183–84

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1073110520917008

    View details for PubMedID 32342787

  • What Are Important Ethical Implications of Using Facial Recognition Technology in Health Care? AMA journal of ethics Martinez-Martin, N. 2019; 21 (2): E180–187


    Applications of facial recognition technology (FRT) in health care settings have been developed to identify and monitor patients as well as to diagnose genetic, medical, and behavioral conditions. The use of FRT in health care suggests the importance of informed consent, data input and analysis quality, effective communication about incidental findings, and potential influence on patient-clinician relationships. Privacy and data protection are thought to present challenges for the use of FRT for health applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/amajethics.2019.180

    View details for PubMedID 30794128

  • Data mining for health: staking out the ethical territory of digital phenotyping NPJ DIGITAL MEDICINE Martinez-Martin, N., Insel, T. R., Dagum, P., Greely, H. T., Cho, M. K. 2018; 1
Daphne O. Martschenko
Assistant Professor (Research) of Pediatrics (Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics)


  • Increasing equity in science requires better ethics training: A course by trainees, for trainees. Cell genomics Patel, R. A., Ungar, R. A., Pyke, A. L., Adimoelja, A., Chakraborty, M., Cotter, D. J., Freund, M., Goddard, P., Gomez-Stafford, J., Greenwald, E., Higgs, E., Hunter, N., MacKenzie, T. M., Narain, A., Gjorgjieva, T., Martschenko, D. O. 2024: 100554


    Despite the profound impacts of scientific research, few scientists have received the necessary training to productively discuss the ethical and societal implications of their work. To address this critical gap, we-a group of predominantly human genetics trainees-developed a course on genetics, ethics, and society. We intend for this course to serve as a template for other institutions and scientific disciplines. Our curriculum positions human genetics within its historical and societal context and encourages students to evaluate how societal norms and structures impact the conduct of scientific research. We demonstrate the utility of this course via surveys of enrolled students and provide resources and strategies for others hoping to teach a similar course. We conclude by arguing that if we are to work toward rectifying the inequities and injustices produced by our field, we must first learn to view our own research as impacting and being impacted by society.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.xgen.2024.100554

    View details for PubMedID 38697124

  • Including multiracial individuals is crucial for race, ethnicity and ancestry frameworks in genetics and genomics. Nature genetics Martschenko, D. O., Wand, H., Young, J. L., Wojcik, G. L. 2023

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41588-023-01394-y

    View details for PubMedID 37202500

  • The Value of Intersectionality for Genomic Research on Human Behavior. Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics Matthews, L. J., Martschenko, D. O., Sabatello, M. 2023: 100860

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.gim.2023.100860

    View details for PubMedID 37092536

Adjunct Professor, Genetics
The Colleen and Robert Haas Professor in Medicine and Biomedical Ethics, Emeritus


  • Advertising, patient decision making, and self-referral for computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging ARCHIVES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Illes, J., Kann, D., Karetsky, K., Letourneau, P., Raffin, T. A., Schraedley-Desmond, P., Koenig, B. A., Atlas, S. W. 2004; 164 (22): 2415-2419


    Self-referred imaging is one of the latest health care services to be marketed directly to consumers. Most aspects of these services are unregulated, and little is known about the messages in advertising used to attract potential consumers. We conducted a detailed analysis of print advertisements and informational brochures for self-referred imaging with respect to themes, content, accuracy, and emotional valence.Forty print advertisements from US newspapers around the country and 20 informational brochures were analyzed by 2 independent raters according to 7 major themes: health care technology; emotion, empowerment, and assurance; incentives; limited supporting evidence; popular appeal; statistics; and images. The Fisher exact test was used to identify significant differences in information content.Both the advertisements and the brochures emphasized health care and technology information and provided assurances of good health and incentives to self-refer. These materials also encouraged consumers to seek further information from company resources; virtually none referred to noncomplying sources of information or to the risks of having a scan. Images of people commonly portrayed European Americans. We found statistical differences between newspaper advertisements and mailed brochures for references to "prevalence of disease" (P<.001), "death" (P<.003), and "radiation" (P<.001). Statements lacking clear scientific evidence were identified in 38% of the advertisements (n = 15) and 25% of the brochures (n = 5).Direct-to-consumer marketing of self-referred imaging services, in both print advertisements and informational brochures, fails to provide prospective consumers with comprehensive balanced information vital to informed autonomous decision making. Professional guidelines and oversight for advertising and promotion of these services are needed.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225701900003

    View details for PubMedID 15596630

  • Discovery and disclosure of incidental findings in neuroimaging research 33rd Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Neuroscience Illes, J., Kirschen, M. P., Karetsky, K., Kelly, M., Saha, A., Desmond, J. E., Raffin, T. A., Glover, G. H., Atlas, S. W. JOHN WILEY & SONS INC. 2004: 743–47


    To examine different protocols for handling incidental findings on brain research MRIs, and provide a platform for establishing formal discussions of related ethical and policy issues.Corresponding authors identified from a database of peer-reviewed publications in 1991-2002 involving functional MRI (fMRI), alone or in combination with other imaging modalities, were invited to participate in this web-based survey. The survey asked questions regarding knowledge and handling of incidental findings, as well as characteristics of the scanning environment, training required, IRB protocol requirements, and neuroradiologist involvement.Seventy-four investigators who conduct MRI studies in the United States and abroad responded. Eighty-two percent (54/66) reported discovering incidental findings in their studies, such as arteriovenous malformations, brain tumors, and developmental abnormalities. Substantial variability was found in the procedures for handling and communicating findings to subjects, neuroradiologist involvement, personnel permitted to operate equipment, and training.Guidelines for minimum and optimum standards for detecting and communicating incidental findings on brain MRI research are needed.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.20180

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224762700001

    View details for PubMedID 15503329

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1506385

  • Chylothorax after heart/lung transplantation JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION Ziedalski, T. M., Raffin, T. A., Sze, D. Y., Mitchell, J. D., Robbins, R. C., Theodore, J., Faul, J. L. 2004; 23 (5): 627-631


    Chylothorax is a potentially serious complication of lung and heart-lung transplantation. This article describes the clinical course of chylothorax in 3 heart-lung allograft recipients. We discuss management options, including dietary modifications, octreotide infusion, thoracic duct ligation and embolization, and surgical pleurodesis. In addition, we describe the novel use of aminocaproic acid to reduce lymph flow. We propose a multidisciplinary approach for the management of chylothorax that includes both medical and surgical options.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221393700018

    View details for PubMedID 15135382

Member, Maternal & Child Health Research Institute (MCHRI)


  • Benefits of sharing neurophysiology data from the BRAIN Initiative Research Opportunities in Humans Consortium NEURON Rahimzadeh, V., Jones, K., Majumder, M. A., Kahana, M. J., Rutishauser, U., Williams, Z. M., Cash, S. S., Paulk, A. C., Zheng, J., Beauchamp, M. S., Collinger, J. L., Pouratian, N., McGuire, A. L., Sheth, S. A., NIH Res Opportunities Humans ROH C 2023; 111 (23): 3710-3715


    Sharing human brain data can yield scientific benefits, but because of various disincentives, only a fraction of these data is currently shared. We profile three successful data-sharing experiences from the NIH BRAIN Initiative Research Opportunities in Humans (ROH) Consortium and demonstrate benefits to data producers and to users.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neuron.2023.09.029

    View details for Web of Science ID 001135333000001

    View details for PubMedID 37944519

  • Ethically cleared to launch? Science (New York, N.Y.) Rahimzadeh, V., Fogarty, J., Caulfield, T., Auñón-Chancellor, S., Borry, P., Candia, J., Cohen, I. G., Covington, M., Lynch, H. F., Greely, H. T., Hanlon, M., Hatt, J., Low, L., Menikoff, J., Meslin, E. M., Platts, S., Ravitsky, V., Ruttley, T., Seidler, R. D., Sugarman, J., Urquieta, E., Williams, M. A., Wolpe, P. R., Donoviel, D., McGuire, A. L. 2023; 381 (6665): 1408-1411


    Rules are needed for human research in commercial spaceflight.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.adh9028

    View details for PubMedID 37769066

  • Integrating Social Determinants of Health into Ethical Digital Simulations AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BIOETHICS Kostick-Quenet, K., Rahimzadeh, V., Anandasabapathy, S., Hurley, M., Sonig, A., Mcguire, A. 2023; 23 (9): 57-60
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Emeritum Faculty-Med Ctr Line, Miscellaneous
Professor of Medicine (Primary Care & Population Health) and, by courtesy, of Pediatrics (Stanford Center of Biomedical Ethics)


  • "Like not having an arm": a qualitative study of the impact of visitor restrictions on cancer care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer Holdsworth, L. M., Siden, R., Wong, B. O., Verano, M., Lessios, A. S., Tabor, H. K., Schapira, L., Aslakson, R. 2024; 32 (5): 288


    Visitor restriction policies to prevent the spread of COVID-19 among patients and clinicians were widespread during the pandemic, resulting in the exclusion of caregivers at key points of cancer care and treatment decision-making. The aim of this study was to explore how visitor restrictions impacted cancer treatment decision-making and care from patient and physician perspectives.Sixty-seven interviews, including 48 cancer patients and 19 cancer and palliative care physicians from four academic cancer centers in the USA between August 2020 and July 2021.Visitor restrictions that prevented caregivers from participating in clinic appointments and perioperative hospital care created challenges in cancer care that spanned three domains: practical, social, and informational. We identified eight themes that characterized challenges within the three domains across all three groups, and that these challenges had negative emotional and psychological consequences for both groups. Physicians perceived that patients' negative experiences due to lack of support through the physical presence of caregivers may have worsened patient outcomes.Our data demonstrate the tripartite structure of the therapeutic relationship in cancer care with caregivers providing critical support in the decision-making and care process to both patients and physicians. Caregiver absences led to practical, psychosocial, and informational burdens on both groups, and likely increased the risk of burnout among physicians. Our findings suggest that the quality of cancer care can be enhanced by engaging caregivers and promoting their physical presence during clinical encounters.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00520-024-08473-8

    View details for PubMedID 38622350

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC11018646

  • Genomics Research with Undiagnosed Children: Ethical Challenges at the Boundaries of Research and Clinical Care JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Halley, M. C., Young, J. L., Tang, C., Mintz, K. T., Lucas-Griffin, S., Maghiro, A., Ashley, E. A., Tabor, H. K., Undiagnosed Diseases Network 2023; 261
  • How are students learning to care for people with disabilities?: exploring the curriculum design of a sample of disability electives offered by US health professions schools. Disability and rehabilitation Clarke, L., Tabor, H. K., Gisondi, M. A. 2023: 1-11


    PURPOSE: There is an increased demand among health professions students for disability-focused training. We aimed to characterize the development and structure of a sample of disability electives offered at health professions schools in the United States.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey was developed to capture data on the curriculum design of disability electives offered at health professions schools across the United States. The primary outcome measures were elective development, elective structure, learner and instructor demographics, disability inclusion, and evaluation methodologies. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted, during which the survey was distributed to relevant professional societies focused on disability advocacy within healthcare.RESULTS: Data were collected on fifteen disability electives. Most electives were developed within the past four years, and many electives were initiated by students. The structure, duration, and evaluation methodology of electives were highly variable. Most electives took the form of a longer didactic-based course or a shorter clinical experience. All electives involved people with disabilities in some capacity.CONCLUSIONS: Disability electives fill an important gap in disability education at some health professions schools. Elective directors should have an increased focus on assessing student learning and ensuring that people with disabilities are involved in elective design and instruction.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/09638288.2023.2254694

    View details for PubMedID 37671804

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