Research Interests & Publications

Life Sciences

Gulf War Illness State of the Science

Dr. Peter Bayley and his team are featured contributors in the Life Sciences Special Edition on Gulf War Illness State of the Science. Presenting research findings to support the accumulating evidence suggesting that Gulf War illness (GWI) is characterised by autonomic nervous system dysfunction (higher heart rate [HR], lower heart rate variability [HRV]).

Yoga – an ancient mind-body practice combining mindfulnessbreathwork, and physical postures – shown to improve autonomic dysfunction yet until recently remained untested in GWI.

Dr. Bayley's compared (i) whether HR and HRV improved among Veterans with GWI receiving either yoga or cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for pain; and (ii) whether baseline autonomic functioning predicted treatment-related pain outcomes across follow-up. Their results showed that Veterans who received CBT tended towards higher mean HR at end-of-treatment. Better autonomic function (lower mean HR, higher RMSSD/HF-HRV) at baseline predicted greater reductions in pain across follow-up, regardless of treatment group. Better baseline autonomic function (mid-range-to-high RMSSD/HF-HRV) also predicted greater pain reductions with yoga, while worse baseline autonomic function (higher mean HR, lower RMSSD/HF-HRV) predicted greater pain reductions with CBT. 

This is the first study to suggest that among Veterans with GWI, HR may increase with CBT yet remain stable with yoga. Furthermore, HR and HRV moderated pain outcome across follow-up for yoga and CBT. Mean HR increased in Veterans with GWI receiving CBT yet remained stable with yoga. Furthermore, HR and HRV moderated pain outcome across follow-up for yoga and CBT.

  • Study Highlights
    • • Mean HR increased in Veterans with GWI receiving CBT yet remained stable with yoga.
    • • Baseline HR and HRV predicted pain across follow-up regardless of treatment type.
    • • CBT was more effective for pain in Veterans with higher HR and lower RMSSD/HF-HRV.
    • • Yoga was more effective for pain in Veterans with higher baseline RMSSD and HF-HRV.
    • • If replicated, HR and HRV may be used to select individualised GWI treatment.

VA Polytrauma Monthly Seminar

Dissemination of research findings on traumatic brain injury and related conditions, primarily among US Veterans.

Meditation as Trauma Therapy: Results from a randomized clinical trial comparing a Breathing-Based Meditation to Cognitive Processing Therapy for Treating PTSD Symptoms in Military Veterans

Dr. Peter Bayley presents on the growing interest in the use of complementary and integrative health, including the use of meditation for treating PTSD. Breathing-based meditation is unique compared to other types of meditation as it involves a process that normally operates unconsciously but through training can be consciously controlled to rapidly impact emotion. One such breathing-based meditation technique known as Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) has previously shown some efficacy in treating PTSD.

However, no previous studies have compared SKY head-to-head with gold-standard trauma therapy. Results from a recent randomized controlled noninferiority trial demonstrating that SKY was statistically not inferior to standard treatment (Cognitive Processing Therapy) in reducing PTSD symptoms and depression. Findings are discussed in the context of a growing number of clinical trials showing that integrative health approaches are effective in treating PTSD. 


Life Science

Mathersul DC, Dixit K, Avery TJ, Schulz-Heik RJ, Zeitzer JM, Mahoney LA, Cho RH, Bayley PJ. Heart rate and heart rate variability as outcomes and longitudinal moderators of treatment for pain across follow-up in Veterans with Gulf War illness. Life Sciences. 2021 Jul 15;277:119604.


Zhang Y, Avery T, Vakhtin AA, Mathersul DC, Tranvinh E, Wintermark M, Massaband P, Ashford JW, Bayley PJ, Furst AJ. Brainstem atrophy in Gulf War Illness. Neurotoxicology. 2020 May;78:71-79. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2020.02.006. Epub 2020 Feb 17. PMID: 32081703.

Life Science

Zhang Y, Vakhtin AA, Dietch J, Jennings JS, Yesavage JA, Clark JD, Bayley PJ, Ashford JW, Furst AJ. Brainstem damage is associated with poorer sleep quality and increased pain in gulf war illness veterans. Life Sci. 2021 Sep 1;280:119724. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119724. Epub 2021 Jun 16. PMID: 34144059.

Psychological Services

Avery, Tim & Schulz-Heik, R. & Friedman, Marcelle & Mahoney, Louise & Ahmed, Nabiha & Bayley, Peter. (2020). Clinical yoga program utilization in a large health care system. Psychological Services. 10.1037/ser0000420. 

European PMC

Zhuang, Liping & Wang, Jingyi & Xiong, Bingsen & Bian, Cheng & Hao, Lei & Bayley, Peter & Qin, Shaozheng. (2020). Rapid Neural Reorganization during Retrieval Practice Predicts Subsequent Long-term Retention and False Memory. 10.1101/2020.04.02.020321.

Journal of the American Geriatrics Society

Bayley PJ, Kong JY, Mendiondo M, Lazzeroni LC, Borson S, Buschke H, Dean M, Fillit H, Frank L, Schmitt FA, Peschin S, Finkel S, Austen M, Steinberg C, Ashford JW. Findings from the National Memory Screening Day program. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 63: 309-14. PMID 25643739 DOI: 10.1111/jgs.13234

Biological Psychology

Isaac L, Main KL, Soman S, Gotlib IH, Furst AJ, Kinoshita LM, Fairchild JK, Yesavage JA, Ashford JW, Bayley PJ, Adamson MM. The impact of depression on Veterans with PTSD and traumatic brain injury: a diffusion tensor imaging study. Biological Psychology.105: 20-8. PMID 25559772 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2014.12.011

Medical Research Methodology

Bayley PJ, Kong JY, Helmer DA, Schneiderman A, Roselli LA, Rosse SM, Jackson JA, Baldwin J, Isaac L, Nolasco M, Blackman MR, Reinhard MJ, Ashford JW, Chapman JC. Challenges to be overcome using population-based sampling methods to recruit veterans for a study of post-traumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury. Bmc Medical Research Methodology. 14: 48. PMID 24713131 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2288-14-48

Journal of the Alzheimer's Association

Borson S, Frank L, Bayley PJ, Boustani M, Dean M, Lin PJ, McCarten JR, Morris JCSalmon DP, Schmitt FA, Stefanacci RG, Mendiondo MS, Peschin S, Hall EJ, Fillit H, et al. Improving dementia care: the role of screening and detection of cognitive impairment. Alzheimer's & Dementia : the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association. 9: 151-9.PMID 23375564 DOI: 10.1016/j.jalz.2012.08.008

Journal of Alzheimer's Disease

Ashford JW, Bayley PJ. Retrogenesis: a model of dementia progression in Alzheimer's disease related to neuroplasticity. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease:Jad. 33: 1191-3. PMID 23090006 DOI: 10.3233/JAD-2012-121124

Frontiers in Human Neuroscience

Isaac L, Bayley PJ. Eeg Coherence between Prefrontal and Posterior Cortical Regions is Related to Negative Personality Traits. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 6: 269. PMID 23060773 DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00269

Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine

Adamson MM, Bayley PJ, Scanlon BK, Farrell ME, Hernandez B, Weiner MW, Yesavage JA, Taylor JL. Pilot expertise and hippocampal size: associations with longitudinal flight simulator performance. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine. 83: 850-7. PMID 22946348 DOI: 10.3357/ASEM.3215.2012

International Journal of Behavioral Medicine

Hawkinson JERoss AJ, Parthasarathy S, Scott DJ, Laramee EA, Posecion LJ, Rekshan WR, Sheau KE, Njaka ND, Bayley PJ, deCharms RC. Quantification of adverse events associated with functional MRI scanning and with real-time fMRI-based training. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 19: 372-81. PMID 21633905 DOI: 10.1007/s12529-011-9165-6

Journal of Alzheimer's Disease

Ashford JW, Coburn KL, Rose TL, Bayley PJ. P300 energy loss in aging and Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease : Jad. 26: 229-38. PMID 21971463 DOI: 10.3233/JAD-2011-0061

Journal of Alzheimer's Disease

Ashford JW, Salehi A, Furst A, Bayley P, Frisoni GB, Jack CR, Sabri O, Adamson MM, Coburn KL, Olichney J, Schuff N, Spielman D, Edland SD, Black S, Rosen A, et al. Imaging the Alzheimer brain. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease : Jad. 26: 1-27. PMID 21971448 DOI: 10.3233/JAD-2011-0073

Journal of Alzheimer's Disease

Ashford JW, Gere E, Bayley PJ. Measuring memory in large group settings using a continuous recognition test. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease : Jad. 27: 885-95. PMID 21908910 DOI: 10.3233/JAD-2011-110950

Advances in Alzheimer's Disease

Bayley PJ, Frisoni GB, Jack CR. Section 2: Structural imaging Advances in Alzheimer's Disease. 2: 45-46. DOI: 10.3233/978-1-60750-793-2-45

Advances in Alzheimer's Disease

Wesson AJ, Salehi A, Furst A, Bayley P. Section 1: Introduction to imaging the Alzheimer brain: The pathology and pathophysiological bases of Alzheimer's disease: Implications for advancing diagnostic imaging Advances in Alzheimer's Disease. 2: 3-10. DOI: 10.3233/978-1-60750-793-2-3

Encyclopedia of Neuroscience

Squire LR, Bayley PJ, Smith CN. Amnesia: Declarative and Nondeclarative Memory Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. 289-294. DOI: 10.1016/B978-008045046-9.00548-9


Bayley PJ, O'Reilly RCCurran TSquire LR. New semantic learning in patients with large medial temporal lobe lesions. Hippocampus. 18: 575-83. PMID 18306299 DOI: 10.1002/hipo.20417

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Kirwan CB, Bayley PJ, Galván VV, Squire LR. Detailed recollection of remote autobiographical memory after damage to the medial temporal lobe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 105: 2676-80. PMID 18252820 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0712155105

Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience

Bayley PJ, Wixted JTHopkins ROSquire LR. Yes/no recognition, forced-choice recognition, and the human hippocampus. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 20: 505-12. PMID 18004951 DOI: 10.1162/jocn.2008.20038

Current Opinion in Neurobiology

Squire LR, Bayley PJ. The neuroscience of remote memory. Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 17: 185-96. PMID 17336513 DOI: 10.1016/j.conb.2007.02.006

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Shrager Y, Bayley PJ, Bontempi BHopkins ROSquire LR. Spatial memory and the human hippocampus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 104: 2961-6. PMID 17296931 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0611233104

The Journal of Neuroscience

Bayley PJ, Hopkins ROSquire LR. The fate of old memories after medial temporal lobe damage. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 26: 13311-7. PMID 17182781 DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4262-06.2006


Atack JR, Bayley PJ, Seabrook GR, Wafford KA, McKernan RM, Dawson GR. L-655,708 enhances cognition in rats but is not proconvulsant at a dose selective for alpha5-containing GABAA receptors. Neuropharmacology. 51: 1023-9. PMID 17046030 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2006.04.018

European Journal of Pharmacology

Atack JR, Bayley PJ, Fletcher SR, McKernan RM, Wafford KA, Dawson GR. The proconvulsant effects of the GABAA alpha5 subtype-selective compound RY-080 may not be alpha5-mediated. European Journal of Pharmacology. 548: 77-82. PMID 16962577 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2006.02.055

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Gold JJSmith CN, Bayley PJ, Shrager YBrewer JBStark CEHopkins ROSquire LR. Item memory, source memory, and the medial temporal lobe: concordant findings from fMRI and memory-impaired patients. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 103: 9351-6. PMID 16751272 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0602716103

The Lancet Neurology

Squire LR, Bayley PJ. The neuroanatomy of very remote memory. The Lancet. Neurology. 5: 112-3. PMID 16426987 DOI: 10.1016/S1474-4422(06)70335-0


Bayley PJ, Frascino JC, Squire LR. Robust habit learning in the absence of awareness and independent of the medial temporal lobe. Nature. 436: 550-3. PMID 16049487 DOI: 10.1038/nature03857


Bayley PJ, Gold JJHopkins ROSquire LR. The neuroanatomy of remote memory. Neuron. 46: 799-810. PMID 15924865 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2005.04.034


Bayley PJ, Squire LR. Failure to acquire new semantic knowledge in patients with large medial temporal lobe lesions. Hippocampus. 15: 273-80. PMID 15523609 DOI: 10.1002/hipo.20057

Proceedings of the National Academy

Levy DA, Bayley PJ, Squire LR. The anatomy of semantic knowledge: medial vs. lateral temporal lobe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 101: 6710-5. PMID 15090653 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0401679101


Bayley PJ, Hopkins ROSquire LR. Successful recollection of remote autobiographical memories by amnesic patients with medial temporal lobe lesions. Neuron. 38: 135-44. PMID 12691671 DOI: 10.1016/S0896-6273(03)00156-9


Filbey FM, Bayley PJ. The 15th annual Summer Institute in Cognitive Neuroscience in review Neuroimage. 19: 471-472. DOI: 10.1016/S1053-8119(03)00055-7

Learning & Memory

Stark CE, Bayley PJ, Squire LR. Recognition memory for single items and for associations is similarly impaired following damage to the hippocampal region. Learning & Memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.). 9: 238-42. PMID 12359833 DOI: 10.1101/lm.51802

Journal of Neuroscience

Bayley PJ, Squire LR. Medial temporal lobe amnesia: Gradual acquisition of factual information by nondeclarative memory. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 22: 5741-8. PMID 12097527

Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

Dawson GR, Wafford KA, Smith A, Marshall GR, Bayley PJ, Schaeffer JM, Meinke PT, McKernan RM. Anticonvulsant and adverse effects of avermectin analogs in mice are mediated through the gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptor. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 295: 1051-60. PMID 11082440

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society

Bayley PJ, Salmon DPBondi MW, Bui BK, Olichney J, Delis DC, Thomas RG, Thal LJ. Comparison of the serial position effect in very mild Alzheimer's disease, mild Alzheimer's disease, and amnesia associated with electroconvulsive therapy. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society : Jins. 6: 290-8. 

Neurobiology of Aging

Pappas BA, Bayley PJ, Bui BK, Hansen LA, Thal LJ. Choline acetyltransferase activity and cognitive domain scores of Alzheimer's patients. Neurobiology of Aging. 21: 11-7. PMID 10794843 DOI: 10.1016/S0197-4580(00)00090-7


Bayley PJ, Bentley GD, Dawson GR. The effects of selected antidepressant drugs on timing behaviour in rats. Psychopharmacology. 136: 114-22. PMID 9551767 DOI: 10.1007/s002130050546

Journal of Psychopharmacology

Bayley PJ, Bentley GD, Jackson A, Williamson D, Dawson GR. Comparison of benzodiazepine (BZ) receptor agonists in two rodent activity tests. Journal of Psychopharmacology (Oxford, England). 10: 206-13. PMID 22302946 DOI: 10.1177/026988119601000305

European Journal of Pharmacology

Dawson GR, Curnow R, Bayley P, Rambridge A, Tricklebank MD. Lack of effect of flumazenil and CGS 8216 on the anxiolytic-like properties of loreclezole. European Journal of Pharmacology. 252: 325-8. PMID 7909294 DOI: 10.1016/0014-2999(94)90180-5


Dawson GR, Bayley P, Channell S, Iversen SD. A comparison of the effects of the novel muscarinic receptor agonists L-689,660 and AF102B in tests of reference and working memory. Psychopharmacology. 113: 361-8. PMID 7862846 DOI: 10.1007/BF02245210