Steinberg Lab Select Publications


George, P. M., Bliss, T. M., Hua, T., Lee, A., Oh, B., Levinson, A., Mehta, S., Sun, G., Steinberg, G. K. Electrical preconditioning of stem cells with a conductive polymer scaffold enhances stroke recovery. Biomaterials 2017; 142: 31–40

Steinberg JA, Carter BS, Lee MB, Steinberg GK. Ipsilateral Pupillary Dilation Following Carotid Endarterectomy: Temporary  and Benign Phenomenon Neurosurgery, (80)5: 2017;  E239- E244,

Shah AM, Ishizaka S, Cheng MY, Wang EH, Bautista AR, Levy S, Smerin D, Sun G, Steinberg GK. Optogenetic neuronal stimulation of the lateral cerebellar nucleus promotes persistent functional recovery after stroke. Sci Rep. 2017 Jun 1;7:46612. doi: 10.1038/srep46612


Hiu T, Farzampour Z, Paz JT, Wang EH, Badgely C, Olson A, Micheva KD, Wang G, Lemmens R, Tran KV, Nishiyama Y, Liang X, Hamilton SA, O'Rourke N, Smith SJ, Huguenard JR, Bliss TM, Steinberg GK. Enhanced phasic GABA inhibition during the repair phase of stroke: a novel therapeutic target. Brain : a journal of neurology. 2016; 139(Pt 2):468-80. PubMed [journal] PMID: 26685158, PMCID: PMC4805083

Cheng MY, Aswendt M, Steinberg GK. Optogenetic Approaches to Target Specific Neural Circuits in Post-stroke Recovery. Neurotherapeutics : the journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics. 2016; 13(2):325-40. PubMed [journal] PMID: 26701667, PMCID: PMC4824024


George, P. M., Steinberg, G. K: Novel Stroke Therapeutics: Unraveling Stroke Pathophysiology and Its Impact on Clinical Treatments. Neuron. 2015; 87 (2): 297-309.

Mukerji, N., Cook, D. J., Steinberg, G. K: Is local hypoperfusion the reason for transient neurological deficits after STA-MCA bypass for moyamoya disease? Journal of Neurosurgery. 2015; 122 (1): 90-94


Karlupia N, Manley NC, Prasad K, Schäfer R, Steinberg GK. Intraarterial transplantation of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells is more efficacious and safer compared with umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells in a rodent stroke model. Stem cell research & therapy. 2014; 5(2):45. PubMed [journal] PMID: 24690461, PMCID: PMC4055161

Arac A, Grimbaldeston MA, Nepomuceno AR, Olayiwola O, Pereira MP, Nishiyama Y, Tsykin A, Goodall GJ, Schlecht U, Vogel H, Tsai M, Galli SJ, Bliss TM, Steinberg GK. Evidence that meningeal mast cells can worsen stroke pathology in mice. The American journal of pathology. 2014; 184(9):2493-504. PubMed [journal] PMID: 25134760, PMCID: PMC4188278

Cheng MY, Wang EH, Woodson WJ, Wang S, Sun G, Lee AG, Arac A, Fenno LE, Deisseroth K, Steinberg GK. Optogenetic neuronal stimulation promotes functional recovery after stroke. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2014; 111(35):12913-8. PubMed [journal] PMID: 25136109, PMCID: PMC4156770

Cheng MY, Wang EH, Steinberg GK. Optogenetic approaches to study stroke recovery. ACS chemical neuroscience. 2014; 5(12):1144-5. PubMed [journal] PMID: 252596892013


Steinberg, G. K: Controversy: Clipping of Asymptomatic Intracranial Aneurysm That is < 7 mm Yes. Stroke. 2013; 44 (6): S97-S99.

Pandey, P., Westbroek, E. M., Gooderham, P. A., Steinberg, G. K: Cavernous malformation of brainstem, thalamus, and basal ganglia: a series of 176 patients. Neurosurgery. 2013; 72 (4): 573-589.

Gu L, Xiaoxing X, Ito T, Lee J, Xu B, Krams S, Steinberg GK, Zhao H: Moderate hypothermia Inhibits brain inflammation and attenuates stroke-induced immunodepression in rats. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2013 Aug 24. doi: 10.1111/cns.12160. [Epub ahead of print]

Sigdel T, Shoemaker L, Chen R, Li L, Butte A, Sarwal M, Steinberg GK: Immune response profiling identifies autoantibodies specific to moyamoya patients. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 8:45, 2013. [doi:10.1186/1750-1172-8-45]

Dirnagl U, Hakim A, Macleod M, Fisher M, Howells D, Allan S, Steinberg GK, Planas A, Boltze J, Savitz S, Iadecola C, Meairs S: A concerted appeal for international cooperation in preclinical stroke research. Stroke 44(6): 1754-1760, 2013. [doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.000734]

Manley NC, Caso JR, Works MG, Cutler AB, Zemlyak I, Sun GH, Munhoz CD, Chang S, Sorrells SF, Ermini FV, Decker JH, Bertrand AA, Dinkel KM, Steinberg GK, Sapolsky RL: Derivation of injury-responsive dendritic cells for acute brain targeting and therapeutic protein delivery in the stroke-injured rat. PLoS ONE  8(4), 2013.

Daadi M, Hu S, Klausner J, Li Z, Sofilos M, Sun G, Wu JC, Steinberg GK: Imaging in neural stem cell graft-induced structural repair in stroke. Cell Transplantation 22: 881-892, 2013.


Gu L, Xiong X, Zhang H, Xu B, Steinberg GK, Zhao H: Distinctive effects of T cell subsets in neuronal injury induced by cocultured splenocytes in vitro and by in vivo stroke in mice. Stroke 43(7):1941-1946, 2012.

Daadi MM, Grueter B, Malenka R, Redmond ED, Steinberg GK: Dopaminergic neurons from midbrain-specified human embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem cells engrafted in non-human primate model of Parkinson's disease. PLoS ONE  7(7): 1-11, 2012.  

Takahashi T, Steinberg GK, Zhao H: Lithium treatment reduces brain injury induced by focal ischemia with partial reperfusion and the protective mechanisms dispute the importance of Akt activity. Aging and Disease 3(3):226-233, 2012.

Cheng MY, Lee AG, Culberson C, Sun G, Talati R, Manley N, Li X, Zhao H, Lyons DM, Zhou Q-Y, Steinberg GK, Sapolsky RM: Prokineticin 2 is a novel endangering mediator of cerebral ischemic injury.  Proc Natl Acad Sci 109(14):5475-5480, 2012.

Takahashi T, Steinberg GK, Zhao H: Phosphorylated MAPK/ERK1/2 may not always represent its kinase activity in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia with or without ischemic preconditioning. Neuroscience 3(209): 155-160, 2012.

Manley NC, Steinberg GK: Tracking stem cells for cellular therapy in stroke. Current Pharmaceutical Design 18(25): 3685-3693, 2012.

Willingham SB, Volkmer J, Gentles AJ, Sahoo D, Dalerba P, Mitra SS, Wang J, Contreras-Trujillo, H, Martin R, Cohen JD, Lovelace P, Scheeren FA, Chao MP, Weiskopf K, Tang C, Volkmer AK, Naik TJ, Storm TA, Mosley AR, Edris B, Schmid SM, Sun CK, Chua MS, Murillo O, Rajendran P, Cha AC, Chin RK, Kim D, Adorno M, Raveh T, Tseng D, Jaiswal S, Enger PO, Steinberg GK, Li G, So SK, Majeti R, Harsh GR, Rijn M, Teng N, Sunwoo JB, Alizade AA, Clarke MF, Weissman IL: CD47 is a therapeutic target on human solid tumor cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci 109(17): 6662-6667, 2012.

Shoemaker LD, Achrol AS, Sethu P, Steinberg GK, Chang SD: Clinical neuroproteomics and biomarkers: From basic research to clinical decision-making. Neurosurgery 70(3): 518-525, 2012.


Arac A, Brownell SE, Rothbard JB, Chen C, Ko RM, Pereira MP, Albers GW, Steinman L, Steinberg GK: Systemic augmentation of αB-crystallin, produced endogenously following stroke, provides therapeutic benefit twelve hours post-stroke onset. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108(32): 13287-13292, 2011.

Zhao H, Steinberg GK: Limited therapeutic time windows of mild to moderate hypothermia in a focal ischemia model in rat. Stroke Research and Treatment  131834:1-7, 2011.

Encarnacion A,  Horie N, Keren-Gill H, Bliss TM, Steinberg GK, Shamloo M: Long-term behavioral assessment of function in an experimental model for ischemic stroke. J Neurosci Methods 196(2):247-257, 2011.

Cheng MY, Lee I-P, Jin M, Sun GH, Zhao H, Steinberg GK, Sapolsky RM : An insult-inducible vector system activated by hypoxia and oxidative stress for neuronal gene therapy. Translational Stroke Research  2(1):92-100, 2011.

Andres RH, Choi R, Pendharkar AV, Gaeta X, Wang N, Chua JY, Lee SW, Palmer TD, Steinberg GK, Guzman R: The CCR2/CCL2 interaction mediates the transendothelial recruitment of stem cells to the injured brain. Stroke  42(10): 2923-2931, 2011.

Andres RH, Horie N, Slikker W, Keren-Gill H, Zhan K, Sun GH, Sheikh LA, McMillan EL, Schaar BT, Svendsen CN, Bliss TM, Steinberg GK: Human neural stem cells enhance structural plasticity and axonal transport in the ischemic brain.  Brain 134(Pt 6): 1777–1789, 2011.

Horie N, Niizuma K, Pereira MP, Sun GH, Keren-Gill H, Encarnacion A, Shamloo M, Hamilton SA, Jiang K, Huhn S, Palmer T, Bliss TM, Steinberg GK: Transplanted stem cell-secreted VEGF effects post-stroke recovery, inflammation, and vascular repair.  Stem Cells 29(2):274-285, 2011.


Xu W, Zhang H, Steinberg G, Zhao H: The Akt pathway is involved in rapid ischemic tolerance in focal ischemia in rats. Translational Stroke Research 1(3):202–209, 2010.
Gera A, Steinberg GK, Guzman R: In vivo neural stem cell imaging: current modalities and future directions.  Regenerative Medicine 5(1): 73-86, 2010.

Daadi  MM, Davis A, Arac A, Li Z, Maag A-L, Bhatnagar R, Jiang K, Sun GH, Wu JC, Steinberg GK: Human neural stem cell grafts modify microglial response and enhance axonal sprouting in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Stroke (41): 516-523, 2010.

Bliss T, Andres RH, Steinberg GK: Optimizing the success of cell transplantation therapy for stroke. Neurobiology of Disease 37(2):275–283, 2010.


Daadi MM, Steinberg GK: Manufacturing neurons from human embryonic stem cells biological and regulatory aspects to develop a safe cellular product for stroke cell therapy. Regenerative Medicine  4(2):251-263, 2009.

Daadi MM, Li Z, Arac A, Grueter BA, Sofilos M, Malenka RC, Wu JC, Steinberg GK: Molecular and magnetic resonance imaging of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem cell grafts in ischemic rat brain. Molecular Therapy 17(7):1282-91, 2009.

Lee SM, Zhao H, Maier CM, Steinberg GK: The protective effect of post-ischemic hypothermia on PTEN phosphorylation correlates with free radical inhibition. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 29(9):1589-1600, 2009.

Chopp M, Steinberg G, Kondziolka D, Lu M, Bliss T, Li Y, Hess D, Borlongan C: Who’s in favor of translational cell therapy for stroke: STEPS forward please? Cell Transplantation 18(7):691-3, 2009.

Daadi M, Lee SH, Arac A, Grueter BA, Bhatnagar R, Maag A-L, Schaar B, Malenka RC, Palmer TD, Steinberg GK: Functional engraftment of the medial ganglionic eminence cells in experimental stroke model. Cell Transplantation 18(7):815-26, 2009. 

Hoang S,  Liauw J,  Choi M,  Choi M, Guzman R,  Steinberg GK: Netrin-4 enhances angiogenesis and neurological outcome after cerebral ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab  29(2):385-397, 2009.

Cheng M, Sun GH, Jin M, Zhao H, Steinberg GK, Sapolsky RM: Blocking glucocorticoid and enhancing estrogenic genomic signaling protects against cerebral ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab  29(1):130–136, 2009.

Cai W, Guzman R, Hsu A, Wang Hui, Sun G, Gera A, Choi R, Bliss T, He L, Maag AL, Hori N, Zhao H, Moseley M, Steinberg GK, Chen X: Positron emission tomography imaging of poststroke angiogenesis. Stroke  40(1): 270-277, 2009.


Horie N, Maag AL, Hamilton SA, Shichinohe H, Bliss TM, Steinberg GK: Mouse model of focal cerebral ischemia using endothelin-1. J Neurosci Methods 173(2):286-290, 2008.

Castaneda D, Zhao H, Mochly-Rosen D, Steinberg GK: Activating δPKC antagonizes the protective effect of ERK1/2 inhibition against stroke in rats. Brain Res  1251:256-261, 2008.

Gao X, Zhang H, Takahashi T, Hsieh J, Liao J, Steinberg GK, Zhao H: The Akt signaling pathway contributes to postconditioning's protection against stroke; the protection is associated with the MAPK and PKC pathways. J Neurochem, 105:943-955, 2008.

Liauw J, Hoang S, Eroglu C, Choi M, Guzman R, Bliss T, Barres B, Steinberg GK: Thrombospondins 1 and 2 are necessary for synaptic plasticity and spontaneous functional recovery after stroke. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 28(10):1722-32, 2008.

Zhang H, Gao X, Ren C, Steinberg GK, Zhao HCA: Inhibiting  caspase-3 activity blocks B-catenin degradation after focal ischemia in rat.  Neuroreport  19(8):821-4, 2008.

Liu L, Kim JY, Koike M, Yoon YJ, Tang X, Ma H, Steinberg GK, Lee JE, Yenari M: FasL shedding is reduced by hypothermia in experimental stroke. J Neurochem  106:541-550, 2008.

Zhang H, Ren C, Gao X, Takahashi T, Sapolsky RM, Steinberg GK, Zhao H: Hypothermia blocks b-catenin degradation after focal ischemia in rats. Brain Res 1198:182-187, 2008.

Sawe N, Steinberg GK, Zhao H: Dual roles of the MAPK/ERK1/2 cell signaling pathway after stroke. J Neurosci Res 86(8):1659 – 1669, 2008.

Daadi M, Maag AL, Steinberg GK: Adherent expandable human embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem cells: functional engraftment in experimental stroke model. PLoS ONE  3:2: e1644, 2008.

Guzman R, Choi R, Gera A, De Los Angeles A, Andres RH and Steinberg GK: Intravascular cell replacement therapy for stroke. Neurosurg Focus 24(3-4): E15, 2008.

Andres RH, Guzman R, Ducray AD, Mordasini P, Gera A, Barth A, Widmer HR, Steinberg GK: Cell replacement therapy for intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurosurg Focus  24(3-4): E16, 2008.

Bright R, Sun GH, Yenari M, Steinberg GK, Mochly-Rosen D:  epsilonPKC confers acute tolerance to cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury. Neurosci Lett 441(1):120-4, 2008.

Guzman R, De Los Angeles A, Cheshier S, Raymond C, Hoang S, Liauw J, Schaar B, and Steinberg GK: Intracarotid injection of FACS-sorted CD49d neural stem cells improves targeted cell delivery and behavior after stroke in a mouse stroke model. Stroke 39:1300-1306, 2008.


Zhao H, Steinberg GK, Sapolsky RM: General versus specific action of mild-moderate hypothermia in protecting against cerebral ischemic damage. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 27:1879-1894, 2007.

Sung JH, Zhao H, Roy M, Sapolsky RM, Steinberg GK: Viral caspase inhibitor p35, but not crmA, is neuroprotective in the ischemic penumbra following experimental stroke. Neuroscience 149:804-812, 2007.

Guzman R, Bliss T, De Los Angeles A, Moseley M, Palmer T, Steinberg GK: Neural progenitor cells transplanted into the uninjured brain undergo targeted migration after stroke onset. J Neurosci Res 86:873-882, 2008.

Ren C, Gao X, Steinberg GK, Zhao H: Limb remote-preconditioning protects against focal ischemia in rats and contradicts the dogma of therapeutic time windows for preconditioning. Neuroscience, 151(4): 1099-1103, 2008.

Guzman R, Uchida N, Bliss T, He D, Christopherson K, Stellwagen D, Capela A, Greve J, Malenka R, Moseley M, Palmer T, Steinberg GK: Long-term monitoring of transplanted human neural stem cells in developmental and pathological contexts with magnetic resonance imaging. Proc Natl Acad Sci 104(24):10211-10216, 2007.

Shimohata T, Zhao H, Sung JH, Sun GH, Mochly–Rosen D, Steinberg GK: Suppression of δPKC activation after focal cerebral ischemia contributes to the protective effect of hypothermia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 27:1463-1475, 2007.

Shimohata T, Zhao H, Steinberg GK: εPKC may contribute to the protective effect of hypothermia in a rat focal cerebral ischemia model. Stroke 28(2): 375-380, 2007.

Zhao H, Wang JQ, Shimohata T, Sun GH, Yenari MA, Sapolsky RM, Steinberg GK: Conditions of protection by hypothermia and effects on apoptotic pathways in a model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. J Neurosurg 107:636-641, 2007.

Bliss TM, Guzman R, Daadi MM, Steinberg GK: Cell transplantation therapy for stroke. Stroke 38:817-826, 2007.

Bright R, Steinberg GK, Mochly–Rosen D: δPKC mediates microcerebrovascular dysfunction in acute ischemia or chronic hypertensive stress in vivo. Brain Research 1144:146-155, 2007.

Davis AS, Zhao H, Sun GH, Sapolsky RM, Steinberg GK: Gene therapy using SOD1 protects striatal neurons from experimental stroke. Neurosci Lett 411:32-36, 2007.


Zhao H, Sapolsky RM, Steinberg GK: Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase/Akt survival signal pathways are implicated in neuronal survival after stroke. Molecular Neurobiology 34(3):249–269, 2006.

Liu JJ, Zhao H, Sung JH, Sun GH, Steinberg GK: Hypothermia blocks ischemic changes in ubiquitin distribution and levels following stroke. NeuroReport 17:1691-1695, 2006.

Zhao H, Sapolsky RM, Steinberg GK: Interrupting reperfusion as a stroke therapy: ischemic postconditioning reduces infarct size after focal ischemia in rats. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 26:1114–1121, 2006.

Bliss TM, Kelly S, Shah AK, Foo WC, Kohli P, Stokes C, Sun GH, Ma M, Masel J, Kleppner JR, Schallert T, Palmer T, Steinberg GK: Transplantation of hNT neurons into the ischemic cortex: Cell survival and effect of sensorimotor behavior. J Neurosci Res 83:1004–1014, 2006.


Hoehn BD, Palmer T, Steinberg GK: Neurogenesis in rats after focal cerebral ischemia is enhanced by indomethacin. Stroke 36:2718–2724, 2005.

Zhao H, Shimohata T, Wang JQ, Sun GH, Schaal DW, Sapolsky RM, Steinberg GK: Akt contributes to neuroprotection of hypothermia against cerebral ischemia in rats. J Neuroscience 25:9794–9806, 2005.

Zhao H, Yenari MA, Cheng D, Sapolsky RM, Steinberg GK: Biphasic cytochrome c release after transient global ischemia and its inhibition by hypothermia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 25:1119–1129, 2005.

Kelly S, Cheng D, Steinberg GK, Yenari MA: Mild hypothermia decreases GSK3β expression following global cerebral ischemia. Neurocritical Care 2:212–217, 2005.


Kelly S, Bliss TM, Shah AK, Sun GH, Ma M, Foo WC, Masel J, Yenari MA, Weissman IL, Uchida N, Palmer T, Steinberg GK: Transplanted human fetal neural stem cells survive, migrate and differentiate in ischemic rat cerebral cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci 101(32): 11839–11844, 2004.

Giffard RG, Xu L, Zhao H, Carrico W, Ouyang Y, Qiao Y, Sapolsky R, Steinberg GK, Hu B, Yenari MA. Chaperones, protein protection from hypoxic/ischemic injury. J Exp Biol 207:3213–3220, 2004.

Gu W, Zhao H, Yenari MA, Sapolsky RM, Steinberg GK: Catalase overexpression protects striatal neurons from transient focal cerebral ischemia. Neuroreport 15:413–416, 2004.

Kelly S, Zhao H, Sun GH, Cheng D, Qiao Y, Luo J, Martin K, Steinberg GK, Harrison SD, Yenari MA: Glycogen synthase kinase 3b inhibitor Chir025 reduces neuronal death resulting from oxygen-glucose deprivation, glutamate excitotoxicity and cerebral ischemia. Exp Neurol 188:378–386, 2004.

Bright R, Raval AP, Dembner JM, Perez–Pinzon MA, Steinberg GK, Yenari MA, Mochly–Rosen D: Protein kinase C delta mediates cerebral reperfusion injury in vivo. J Neurosci 24:6880–6888, 2004.

Zhao H, Yenari M, Cheng D, Barreto–Chang OL, Sapolsky RM, and Steinberg GK: Bcl-2 transfection via herpes simplex virus blocks apoptosis-inducing factor translocation after focal ischemia in rat. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab, 24:681–692, 2004.

Zhao H, Yenari MA, Sapolsky RM, Steinberg GK: Mild post-ischemic hypothermia prolongs the time window for gene therapy by inhibiting cytochrome c release. Stroke 35:572–577, 2004.


Maier CM, Sun GH, Cheng D, Yenari MA, Chan PH, Steinberg GK: Effects of mild hypothermia on superoxide anion production and superoxide dismutase expression following transient focal cerebral ischemia. Neurobiology of Disease 11:28–42, 2002.

Kelly S, Zhang ZJ, Zhao H, X L, Giffard RG, Sapolsky RM, Yenari MA, Steinberg GK: Gene transfer of HSP72 protects CA1 neurons from global ischemia: Influence of Bcl-2. Ann Neurol 52:160–167, 2002.

Xu L, Yenari MA, Steinberg GK, Giffard R: Mild hypothermia reduces apoptosis of mouse neurons in vitro early in the cascade. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 22:21–28, 2002.

Yenari MA, Iwayama S, Cheng D, Sun GH, Fujimura M, Morita–Fujimura Y, Chan PH, Steinberg GK: Mild hypothermia attenuates cytochrome C release but does not alter Bcl -2 expression or caspase activation after experimental stroke. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 22:29–38, 2002.


Zhang ZJ, Sobel RA, Cheng D, Steinberg GK, Yenari MA: Mild hypothermia increases Bcl-2 protein expression following global cerebral ischemia. Molecular Brain Res 95:75–85, 2001.

Hoehn B, Ringer TM, Fink SL, Ho DY, Salpolsky RM, Steinberg GK, Yenari MA: Overexpression of Hsp72 after induction of experimental stroke protects neurons from ischemic damage. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 21:1303–1309, 2001.

Lee JE, Yenari M, Sun GH, Xu L, Emond MR, Cheng D, Steinberg GK, Giffard RG: Differential neuroprotection from human heat shock protein 70 overexpression in in vitro and in vivo models of ischemia and ischemia-like conditions. Exp Neurol 170 (1): 129–139, 2001.

Yenari MA, Minami M, Sun GH, Meier TJ, Ho DY, Sapolsky RM, Steinberg GK: Calbindin D28K overexpression protects striatal neurons from transient focal cerebral ischemia. Stroke 32:1028–1035, 2001.

Maier CM, Sun GH, Kunis D, Yenari MA, Steinberg GK: Delayed induction and long-term effects of mild hypothermia in a focal model of transient cerebral ischemia: Neurological outcome and infarct size. J Neurosurg 94:90–96, 2001.


Yenari M, Onley D, Hedehus M, deCrespigny A, Sun G, Moseley ME, Steinberg GK: Diffusion- and perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of focal cerebral ischemia and cortical spreading depression under conditions of mild hypothermia. Brain Res 885:208–219, 2000.


Sapolsky RJ, Steinberg GK: Gene therapy for acute neurological injury. Neurology 53:1922–1931, 1999.

Yenari MA, Giffard RG, Sapolsky RM, Steinberg GK: Neuroprotective potential of heat shock proteins. Molecular Medicine Today 5:525–531, 1999.


Maier CM, Ahern K vB, Cheng ML, Lee JE, Yenari MA, Steinberg GK: Optimal depth and duration of mild hypothermia in a focal model of transient cerebral ischemia: Effects on neurologic outcome, infarct size, apoptosis, and inflammation. Stroke 29:2171–2180, 1998.

Bell TE, Kongable GL, Steinberg GK: Mild hypothermia: an alternative to deep hypothermia for achieving neuroprotection. J Cardiovasc Nursing 13:34–44, 1998.

Yenari MA, Fink SL, Sun GH, Chang LK, Patel MK, Kunis DM, Onley D, Ho DY, Sapolsky RM, Steinberg GK: Gene therapy with HSP72 is neuroprotective in rat models of stroke and epilepsy. Annals of Neurology 44:584–591, 1998.

Yenari MA, Kunis D, Sun GH, Onley D, Watson L, Cosgrove S, Whitaker S, Steinberg GK: Hu23F2G, an antibody recognizing the leukocyte CD11/CD18 integrin, reduces injury in a rabbit model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. Exp Neurol 153:223–233, 1998.

Yenari MA, Lee LK, Beaulieu C, Sun GH, Kunis D, Chang D, Albers GW, Moseley ME, Steinberg GK: Thrombolysis with reteplase, an unglycosylated plasminogen activator variant, in experimental embolic stroke. J Stroke & Cerebrovasc Dis 7(3):179–186, 1998.


Yenari MA, Beaulieu C, Steinberg GK, Moseley, ME: Diffusion-weighted MRI does not reliably detect hemorrhagic transformation in experimental embolic stroke. J Neuroimaging 7:227–231, 1997.

Yenari MA, de Crespigny A, Palmer JT, Roberts S, Schrier SL, Albers GW, Moseley ME, Steinberg GK: Improved perfusion with tPA and hirulog in a rabbit model of embolic stroke. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 17:401–411, 1997.

Lawrence MS, Sun GH, Ho DY, Kunis DM, Sapolsky RM, Steinberg GK: Herpes simplex viral vectors expressing Bcl-2 are neuroprotective when delivered following a stroke. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 17:740–744, 1997.

Pérez–Pinzón MA, Yenari MA, Sun GH, Kunis DM, Steinberg GK: SNX-111, A novel, presynaptic N-type calcium channel antagonist, is neuroprotective against focal cerebral ischemia in rabbits. J Neurol Sci 153:25–31, 1997.


Yenari MA, Palmer JT, Sun GH, de Crespigny A, Moseley ME, Steinberg GK: Timecourse and treatment response with SNX-111, an N-type calcium channel blocker, in a rodent model of focal cerebral ischemia using diffusion-weighted MRI. Brain Research 739:36–45, 1996.

Pérez–Pinzón MA, Steinberg GK: CGS 19755 (Selfotel): A novel neuroprotective agent against CNS injury. CNS Drug Reviews 2:1–12, 1996.

Lawrence MS, Ho DY, Sun GH, Steinberg GK, Sapolsky RM: Overexpression of Bcl-2 with herpes simplex virus vectors protects CNS neurons against neurologic insults in vitro and in vivo. J Neurosci 16:486–496, 1996.

Lawrence MS, Sun GH, Kunis DM, Saydam TC, Dash R, Ho DY, Sapolsky RM, Steinberg GK: Overexpression of the glucose transporter gene with a herpes simplex viral vector protects striatal neurons against stroke. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 16:181–185, 1996.

Steinberg GK, Panahian N, Pérez–Pinzón MA, Sun G–H, Modi MW, Sepinwall J: Narrow temporal therapeutic window for NMDA antagonist protection against focal cerebral ischemia. Neurobiology of Disease 2:109–118, 1995.


Maier CM, Sun G–H, Kunis DM, Giffard RG, Steinberg GK: Neuroprotection by the NMDA receptor antagonist CGP 40116: In vivo and in vitro studies. J Neurochem 65:652–659, 1995.

Pérez–Pinzón MA, Maier CM, Yoon EJ, Sun G–H, Giffard RG, Steinberg GK: Correlation of CGS 19755 neuroprotection against in vitro excitotoxicity and focal cerebral ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 15:865–876, 1995.

Yenari MA, Palmer JT, Bracci PM, Steinberg GK: Thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator is temperature dependent. Thrombosis Research 77:475–481, 1995.

Steinberg GK, Yoon EJ, Kunis DM, Sun G–H, Maier CM, Grant GA: Neuroprotection by NMDA antagonists in focal cerebral ischemia is dependent on continued maintenance dosing. Neuroscience 64:99–107,1995.


Steinberg GK, Panahian N, Sun G-H, Maier CM, Kunis D: Cerebral damage caused by interrupted, repeated arterial occlusion versus uninterrupted occlusion in a focal ischemic model. J Neurosurg 81:554–559,1994.


Maier CM, Steinberg GK, Sun GH, Guo TZ, Maze M: Neuroprotection by the alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonist dexmedetomidine in a focal model of cerebral ischemia. Anesthesiology 79:306–312, 1993.

Lo EH, Steinberg GK, Panahian N, Maidment NT, Newcomb R: Profiles of extracellular amino acid changes in focal cerebral ischemia: Effects of mild hypothermia. Neurol Res 15:281–287, 1993.

Steinberg GK, Kunis D, DeLaPaz RL, Poljak A: Neuroprotection following focal cerebral ischemia by the NMDA and calcium antagonist dextromethorphan has a favorable dose response profile. Neurol Res 15:174–180,1993.


Steinberg GK, Lo EH, Kunis DM, Grant GA, Poljak A, DeLaPaz R: Dextromethorphan alters cerebral blood flow and protects against cerebral injury following focal ischemia. Neurosci Lett 133:225–228,1991.

Lo EH, Sun G, Steinberg GK: Effects of NMDA and calcium channel antagonists on regional cerebral blood flow. Neurosci Lett 131:17–20,1991.

Steinberg GK, Kunis D, Saleh J, DeLaPaz R: Protection after transient focal cerebral ischemia by the NMDA antagonist dextrorphan, is dependent upon plasma and brain levels. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 11:1015–1024,1991.

Lo EH, Frankel KA, Steinberg GK, DeLaPaz RL, Fabrikant JI: High-dose single-fraction brain irradiation: MRI, cerebral blood flow, electrophysiological and histological studies. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 22:47–55,1991.

Lo EH, Steinberg GK: Effects of dextromethorphan on regional cerebral blood flow in focal cerebral ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 11:803–809, 1991.

Lo EH, DeLaPaz RL, Frankel KA, Poljak A, Phillips MH, Brennan KM, Woodruff KH, Valk PE, Steinberg GK, Fabrikant JI: MRI and PET of delayed heavy-ion radiation injury in the rabbit brain. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 20:689–696, 1991.

DeLaPaz R, Shibata D, Steinberg GK, George CP, Zarnegar SR: Acute cerebral ischemia in rabbits: Correlation of MRI and histopathology. AJNR 12:89–95, 1991.


Kraft SA, Larson CP, Shuer LM, Steinberg GK, Benson GV, Pearl RG: Effect of hyperglycemia on neuronal ischemic changes in a rabbit model of focal cerebral ischemia. Stroke 21:447–450, 1990.


Lo EH, Frankel KA, DeLaPaz RL, Poljak A, Woodruff KH, Brennan KM, Phillips MH, Valk PE, Steinberg GK, Fabrikant JI: Cerebrovascular and metabolic perturbations in delayed heavy- charged-particle radiation injury. Brain Res 504:168–172, 1989.

Steinberg GK, Saleh J, Kunis D, DeLaPaz R, Zarnegar SR: Protective effect of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate antagonists after focal cerebral ischemia in rabbits. Stroke 20:1247–1252, 1989.

Steinberg GK, Saleh J, DeLaPaz R, Kunis D, Zarnegar SR: Pre-treatment with the NMDA antagonist dextrorphan, reduces cerebral injury following transient focal ischemia in rabbits. Brain Res 497:382–386, 1989.

Zasslow MA, Pearl RG, Shuer LM, Steinberg GK, Lieberson RE, Larson CP: Hyperglycemia decreases neuronal ischemic changes after middle cerebral artery occlusion in the cat. Stroke 20:519–523, 1989.


Steinberg GK, George CP, DeLaPaz R, Shibata DK, Gross T: Dextromethorphan protects against cerebral injury following transient focal cerebral ischemia in rabbits. Stroke 19:1112–1118, 1988.

Steinberg GK, Saleh J, Kunis D: Delayed treatment with dextromethorphan and dextrorphan reduces cerebral damage after transient focal ischemia. Neurosci Lett 89:193–197, 1988.

George CP, Goldberg MP, Choi DW, Steinberg GK: Dextromethorphan reduces neocortical ischemic neuronal damage in vivo. Brain Res 440:375–379, 1988.


Steinberg GK, Gelb AW, Lam AM, Manninen PH, Peerless SJ, Rassi–Neto A, Floyd P: Correlation between somatosensory evoked potentials and neuronal ischemic changes following middle cerebral artery occlusion. Stroke 17:1193–1197, 1986.