Head & Neck Surgery

Annual Message From The Chair

Faculty News

2014 marks the 11’th year since our emergence as an independent department.  From a modest sized division of surgery in 2003 with 5 faculty, we now have 36 faculty (29 permanent faculty and 7 instructors). Our clinical programs span all of the 7 sub-specialty disciplines of otolaryngology – head & neck surgery, with strength in each. We are the top clinical service at Stanford on 2013-4 US News ranking. Our thriving basic science research group includes some 70 scientists and  is supported by over 40 extramural grants.

Our faculty growth and program development continues. Chris Holsinger, our new Division Chief of Head and Neck Surgery, joined us from MD Anderson Cancer Center this year. Chris, who is has made many innovations in transoral robotic surgery, is also building a strong clinical trials program. Lisa Orloff, a renowned head and neck endocrine surgeon, joins us (from UCSF) in February 2014. This year we also welcomed Jennifer Lee, a recent graduate of the University of Pennsylvania program, as a member of our general otolaryngology division. Auditory scientist Nicolas Grillet, who is completing his post-doc at the Scripps Institute in San Diego, joins our basic science faculty in April, 2014.

In the coming year we anticipate 5 additional faculty recruitments. These include an additional pediatric otolaryngologist, a sleep surgeon, a vestibular emphasis neurotologist, a new chief of audiology, and a speech therapist/ scientist.  In an important transition, Vice Chair Anna Messner has become our Chief of Pediatric Otolaryngology replacing Peter Koltai who now serves as Chief of Staff of the Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital.


OHNS Faculty


Clinical Programs

Our clinical services continue their traditional double digit growth annually – a trend which has been sustained annually for the past decade.  Our focus is high on quality tertiary care of complex diseases in the head and neck region.  We are in midst of major expansion of our clinical facilities. In the summer of 2014, we will occupy the newly constructed new “Stanford Ear Institute” with 12 exam rooms and 12 audiology booths (both adult and pediatric) as well as a new balance center and expanded cochlear implant and hearing device programs.   Stanford’s entire head and neck cancer program (including surgical oncology, medical oncology, and radiation oncology will be consolidating into an integrated center on the third floor of Blake-Wilbur building.  In our academic home building at 801 Welch Road, we are building an attractive new suite for our facial plastic surgery program. At our north campus satellite in Redwood City, a new sleep surgery clinic is in final planning stages including new exam rooms, a procedure room, and a dental appliance lab.

Space does not permit a full accounting of our areas of expertise, but I will highlight a few noteworthy examples.  The endoscopic skull base practice of rhinologists Peter Hwang and Jayakar Nayak has made numerous advances including the introduction of endoscopic odontoidectomy.  Laryngologist Ed Damrose and head and neck surgeon Davud Sirjani have commenced an innovative transoral robotic surgery program which has now been substantially enhanced with the addition of leading expert Chris Holsinger. Kwang Sung provides expert care for singers and professional speakers.  Otologist John Oghalai has shown that cochlear implants can benefit children with multiple disabilities. The ototoxicity grading scale of pediatric otolaryngologist Kay Chang has achieved wide acceptance in the oncological community. Facial plastic surgeon Sam Most, known for his refined aesthetic sense and technical excellence, continues to introduce new methods of rhinoplasty and facial reconstruction.  Our head & neck tumor board provides multidisciplinary management of a wide variety of cancers.  The interdisciplinary skull base surgery team provides care for complex and difficult to access intracranial lesions.

On the technical side, our new cone beam CT, installed in our home building at 801 Welch Road, has proved to be the convenience for our patients we hoped it would be.  With the arrival of Lisa Orloff, a leading expert with the head and neck application of ultrasound, we are acquiring state-of-the-art units for both our clinic and ORs.


Education Programs

Our educational programs are thriving with 20 residents, 7 instructor/fellows, numerous medical students on rotation, post-docs, graduate students, and visiting scholars. The exceptional quality of today’s trainees insures that the future of our specialty will be in the best of hands. Our residents are having great success in obtaining fellowship positions and the graduates of our instructor/fellows programs excellent faculty positions. We have undertaken a number of initiatives designed to enhance the educational value of our website. ONHS grand rounds and CME courses are available online on at our departmental iTunes U channel and nearly 2000 original illustrations are online in our skull base, neurotology, and otology atlases.

We are in the process of publishing our departmental introductory textbook, a multi-authored work created entirely by our faculty and trainees.  It is targeted primarily for medical students, beginning residents, and patients interested in a reliable source of sophisticated medical information.  The concept is to make available a well illustrated online text, continuously updated, and made freely available to trainees and patients worldwide. Under the editorial leadership of Jennifer Lee, Candace Pau, and James Tysome this 72 chapter project has taken a couple of years to produce and has several hundred original illustrations by Christine Gralapp. It is expected to go live online during the first half of 2014. As a funded pilot project, we will augment the written material with a series of 10 minute topical videos (the concept is “Khan Academy” for OHNS).

Nik Blevins and a team of computer scientists and engineers have created  haptic reinforced sinus and temporal bone surgery surgical.  Our Perkins Microsurgery Teaching Laboratory has newly installed LED based microscopes with high definition video displays. For student use, we purchased two otoscopy simulators, one for the department and the other which we donated to the medical school’s simulation facility.


Our Community

Organized by Stanford medical students Noel Ayoub and Bernard Siu under the mentorship of head and neck surgeon John Sunwoo, we held our second annual Oral Cancer Screening day in November.  Our tradition of pursing global health engagement included visits to Zimbabwe and Ethiopia by our physicians this year.  OHNS professor, and medical school dean Lloyd Minor is pursing educational partnerships with Asian medical schools.  In addition, numerous otolaryngologists from around the world came to our department as visiting observers for periods from a week to an entire year.

Our cochlear implant program hosted the Baker Institute summer camp for implanted children and their families on the Stanford campus a program led by Nik Blevins.  With support form the AP Gianni Foundation and collaboration with the Peninsula Oral School, this group overcomes the challenges of distance from our center by conducting virtual tele-therapy sessions remotely and using iPad in a program called “Babytalk.”


Alumni News

This March, in a gala at the Rosewood Hotel, we bid fond farewell to retiring emeritus faculty members Dick Goode (Stanford OHNS 1962 – 2013) and Bill Fee (Stanford OHNS 1974 -2013).  Together, these leading surgeons contributed an impressive total of 89 years to Stanford otolaryngology!  During this time they trained generations of residents and fellows and improved the lives of countless thousands of patients.  They are giants of our field, possess an unmatched wealth of experience, and we hope that they will remain close to the program they were instrumental in creating over the coming years. Over 75 of their former trainees attended their retirement party.

Visiting professor Albert Mudry, who is probably the only otolaryngologist who also has earned a PhD in history, and I are writing a history of Stanford OHNS.  This spans from the Stanford predecessor schools in the 19th century to the present.  We have compiled a list of discoveries and inventions introduced by department members and also a complete roster of Stanford OHNS residents since the program was founded in 1909.  We expect to have a comprehensive history on our website during 2014.



Research Overview

The central theme of Stanford OHNS basic and translational research is to seek a better understanding of diseases in our field and inventing new therapies. Our research group, which is a mixture of basic scientists and surgeon – scientists, enjoys numerous collaborations throughout Stanford bioscience and technology. A major thrust of our research is to overcome hearing loss through regenerative means. To achieve this goal we have created the Stanford Initiative to Cure Hearing Loss which is a long term, goal oriented, multidisciplinary research effort. (Heller, Ricci, Oghalai, Cheng, Mustapha, Chang, Grillet, Blevins, Jackler, and Minor)  Important laboratory research is also being conducted in cancer immunology/cancer stem cells (Sunwoo), nasal mucosal development and regeneration (Nayak). Our laboratory facilities are expanding in 2014 with the addition of research space on the 4th floor of the Grant building.  Using departmental and donated funds, we invested further strengthening of our core facilities with the addition of a Fluidigm system and an additional state-of-the-art confocal microscope.  Our imaging core includes scanning and spinning disk confocal microscopes, multi photon, swept field, a cryostat, 3D rendering software (Volocity), deconvolution and image analysis. Our basic and translational research group published 38 papers in the past year including a number in high end journals. At our 4th annual research retreat in October, the entire department participated and 16 of our faculty presented their research plans for the coming year. Both extramural funding and philanthropy remain strong.

––Robert K. Jackler, MD (December 17, 2013)


Annual Research Report

Ricci Lab

Probably the most exciting research results this year came from Dr. Anthony (Tony) Ricci’s laboratory working who has been quite successful with publications in all three of their primary research areas. Most recently, the group has published a paper in NEURON about how sensory hair cells control the sensitivity of the force imparted by sound onto the hair bundle. This paper overturns previously held ideas and opens the door to new investigations. Although a basic science paper, there are translational implications in that these first steps in audition are quite sensitive to damage and to design protection and treatment we need to know how they work. The second area of Dr. Ricci’s research is focused upon understanding how information is transferred from the sensory hair cell to the nerve fiber that innervates it. A recent publication in the Journal of Neurophysiology demonstrates that the ability of the hair cell to synchronize release of synaptic vesicles is critical for being able to drive the nerve fiber to operate at higher frequencies. Lower frequency cells are not as capable of this synchronization. They are presently trying to understand how this synchronizing happens. And finally, working with Alan Cheng, Tony has developed a new class of aminoglycoside antibiotics. These potent antibiotics cause hearing loss in more than 20% of the patients that use them. By using the knowledge of how these compounds work as well as how they get into the sensory cells, they created new compounds that do not cause hearing loss. They are presently submitting this work for publication and have patented the compounds. The next goal is to generate the needed data to begin a clinical trial.

Stanford Bio-X researchers develop new technology to study hearing
Listen to this: Research upends understanding of how humans perceive sound


Cheng Lab

Dr. Alan Cheng’s laboratory had another stellar year. They identified a new type of cochlear progenitor cell called tympanic border cells, which is the topic of continuing work to characterize the role and ability of these cells in development and regeneration of the cochlea. This was published in the journal, Development, in collaboration with the Heller laboratory and Roel Nusse, a Stanford developmental biologist.

A second topic of ongoing research is to describe how the mammalian vestibular system regenerates in young and aged animals and Dr. Cheng’s group has made tremendous progress that very likely will lead to publications in 2014. Perhaps the most remarkable finding from the Cheng laboratory was the identification of progenitor cells in the immature mammalian cochlea that can spontaneously regenerate hair cells.  This result, a collaboration with researchers at St. Jude’s Childrens Hospital, is directly challenging the existing dogma that mammalian cochlear hair cells cannot regenerate. The work has been accepted for publication and more information will be available in the near future.


Oghalai Lab

Dr. John Oghalai reports the first measurement of sound-induced vibrations of the membranes inside the mammalian cochlea without having to open the surrounding bone.  This advance will now allow them to begin studying how complex sounds (like speech for example) stimulate hair cells. Furthermore, the group found that the mechanism of hearing loss after a blast exposure is loss of outer hair cells. This went against the previous belief that the blast pressure rips apart the intracochlear tissues. This means that strategies that can regenerate hair cells could be used to treat soldiers and non-military personnel who have blast-induced hearing loss. In a third line of research, Dr. Oghalai’s team demonstrated that the motor protein prestin, which is within outer hair cells increases after some hair cells are damaged and lost.  This demonstrates how loss of some hair cells leads others to compensate. Finally, Simon Gao, a student in the Oghalai laboratory, passed his dissertation and graduated with a PhD in Bioengineering.


Heller Lab

Dr. Stefan Heller’s group reports the conclusion of a number of projects dealing with the function of specific genes found to be expressed in the inner ear. Publications from this work describe such as a new stereociliary protein found in the mechanosensitive hair bundles of hair cells, and in collaboration with Dr. Ricci, they report the characterization of a novel ion channel that is made from two subunits that are found in sensory hair cells. The biological function of this novel ion channel, however, remains a mystery. Dr. Heller’s group reports a novel method to purify inner ear sensory hair cells as well as the surrounding supporting cells - work done in collaboration with Dr. Cheng.  This new method is already in extensive use in the laboratory to characterize changes that happen in supporting cells of mammalian inner ears after hair cell loss has been induced with drugs or noise. Research on hair cell regeneration has made extensive use of the new microfluidics cell analyzer purchased with SICHL support.  Two manuscripts that were submitted at the end of the year would have not happened if not for this fantastic new technology.  Although still work in progress, the laboratory has started with enrolling patients with genetic causes for hearing loss in a human stem cell project.  The focus is on patients with mutations in connexin genes and early developmental defects.  In the last two years, the group built the necessary infrastructure for this long term research project, which was started with a generous donation from a family supporting the SICHL consortium. The goal of this work is to provide better diagnosis of inner ear disorders and to mimic the disorder in a culture dish where researchers can try out many potential treatment methods in parallel to find out which method might work in the patient. Lastly, research in the laboratory focused for the first time on the central nervous system, specifically on the cochlear nucleus - the relay station where cochlear nerve signals arrive in the brain. Here, they found that new nerve cells are born from neural precursors during the first month of a newborn mouse’s life. When the mice had their cochlea surgically removed, the number of neural precursor cells was significantly reduced. This work was done in collaboration with Dr. Cheng and Dr. Sam Most (a Stanford OHNS clinician) and it might provide a first insight why auditory nerve stimulation (i.e. cochlear implants) works very well in young children, but loses efficiency when the children grow up without any nerve inputs from the cochlea.


Sunwoo Lab

Dr. John Sunwoo’s laboratory is focused on understanding the interface between the immune system and developing cancers.  In particular, they are interested in determining how the immune system recognizes and controls tumor-initiating cells (also known as, cancer stem cells) and how this can be manipulated.  This year, the Sunwoo Lab has made significant advances in understanding how the anti-tumor activity of a particular subset of lymphocytes can be enhanced through a receptor called the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.  This work, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, will potentially open new avenues for immune-modulating drug development for cancer therapy and a better understanding of how the environment and diet can affect immune potency.  The Sunwoo Lab has also been focused on characterizing the cancer stem cells in head and neck cancer.  They have identified a cell surface receptor that is important in regulating the process by which these cells invade and spread to other areas of the body.  They are currently collaborating with the laboratory of Irving Weissman to develop novel methods of targeting this receptor using antibodies.  Components of this work have been presented at several national meetings and are expected to published in this coming year.  Dr. Sunwoo is very active in the tumor immunology programs at Stanford and has recently identified two mechanisms by which cancer stem cells of the head and neck can evade the immune system.  This work has the potential for explaining how malignancies, like head and neck cancer, can remain dormant for long periods of time and reappear when the immune system is perturbed.  The results and implications of this work will be paradigm shifting and will open multiple new areas of investigation.  Along these lines, Dr. Sunwoo has assembled a team of multiple investigators at Stanford to examine the immune response to melanoma.  A project designed by this team has recently been selected for consideration in a final round of applications for a Stanford Cancer Institute translational grant.  Finally, Dr. Sunwoo has been collaborating with Drs. Tony Ricci and Alan Cheng to develop novel ways of protecting inner ear hair cells from damage by chemotherapeutic agents like cisplatin, the most commonly used chemotherapy in the treatment of head and neck cancer.


Puria Lab

Dr. Sunil Puria and Emeritus Professor Charles Steele head the OtoBiomechanics Group in the Mechanical Engineering Department. One of the major accomplishments of the group is the publication of the book “The Middle Ear: Science, Otosurgery, and Technology” edited by Puria, Fay, and Popper, which is part of the Springer Handbook of Auditory Research series. Dr Puria also authored the chapter “Middle-Ear Hearing Devices” in the same book where he reviewed the frontier of implantable hearing aids. A second area of accomplishment is the development of a computational framework for bone conduction hearing, which is an alternate pathway than the normal air conduction pathway through the middle ear. This model has lead to an understanding of why bone conduction hearing improves in people that have a disease called superior-semicircular canal dehiscence. This model is also being used to develop a nuanced understanding of Carhart’s notch for the diagnosis of otosclerosis - a disease where the stapes footplate becomes fixed. The third area of accomplishment is the measurement of the organ of Corti Cytoarchitecture using two-photon microscopy. This work is done in collaboration with Dr Ricci. Preliminary results were presented at the Acoustical Society of America meeting in San Francisco. The imaging results will be incorporated into a finite element modeling framework to test theories of how the mammalian cochlea achieves its exquisite sensitivity and frequency resolution. Two new ME graduate students Yanli Wang and Peter Gottlieb have joined the group. They both took the course ME 266 “Introduction to Physiology and Biomechanics of Hearing” taught every spring quarter by Professor Puria.

Stanford scientist looks for a deeper understanding of hearing through the bones in our heads.


Mustapha Lab

Dr. Mustapha’s lab has had a very productive year with two major projects reaching important milestones. One of them involves the novel and exciting finding of an important role for cell adhesion molecules known as thrombospondins in cochlear and vestibular afferent synapse formation and function. This is the first demonstration of the importance of cell adhesion molecules in the maturation and function of the inner ear, and opens up a whole new area of investigation in the auditory field. The translational phase of this study is now currently underway and these genes are now being screened human patients with progressive and age-related hearing impairment. These findings have been very recently accepted for publication in the European Journal of Neuroscience and will be in press shortly.

Another line of research that has yielded important information relates to the role of thyroid hormone in synapse and axonal pruning. Using a thyroid hormone deficient mouse model and a comprehensive battery of imaging and functional tests, Dr. Mustapha’s group has uncovered a critical role for thyroid hormone in the pruning of redundant synapses in the maturing cochlea. They have narrowed down the critical window for thyroid hormone-regulated synapse refinement using thyroid hormone replacement in these hypothyroid animals. In collaboration with Dr. Tony Ricci, they also measured inner hair cell synaptic function in these mutants and show that it is slightly delayed, but eventually mature by P24 despite the lack of synapse refinement in these cells. The above data is now being compiled into a manuscript for publication. This study is an important contribution to the field since it indicates that the activation of a number of thyroid hormone regulated genes is crucial for the synapse maturation process. Identification of such genes and their functions will enhance our understanding of the mechanism of thyroid hormone action on synapse refinement in the periphery.


Nayak Lab

Dr. Nayak leads the Department’s research effort in nasal and sinus biology. The major research emphasis in the laboratory is directed at basic and translational understanding of the critical cellular and molecular players in upper airway mucosal regeneration at the stem cell level, in response to injuries from surgery, chemicals and toxins. Conditional knock out reporter mouse lines have been generated to examine the properties of basal progenitor cells in the nasal cavity, and track how these cells behave normally and under stress.  Also, human tissues from sinus surgery are analyzed for epithelial alterations in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis, and also utilized as a rare and rich source of primary upper airway stem cells for tissue engineering projects to regenerate mucosal tissues.  This year, his group has published several articles, including a methodological paper to describe the purification of human nasal epithelial progenitor cells from nasal and sinus tissues after surgery. These ‘basal cells’ represent only 0.06% of cells in the epithelial cell suspensions, and provided the first report of the isolation of these cells from human tissues. These groundbreaking steps will pattern future experiments to better discriminate progenitor cell differences, and exploit these cells in translational applications. Abstracts for this work have been presented as posters at recent International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) meetings, and Dr. Nayak was also invited to present these groundbreaking basic science findings on nasal progenitors at the prestigious Keystone Symposium on Lung Development, Cancer and Disease in February 2013 in Taos, New Mexico. He was also the recent recipient of the highest individual grant award available from the American Academy of Otolaryngology (AAO) - the Triological Society.

The Nayak laboratory has ongoing collaborative and mentoring efforts with Mark Krasnow, MD, at Stanford University, Brigid Hogan, PhD at Duke University, and John Ngai, PhD at the University of California Berkeley to define nasal epithelial model systems and basal cell populations. More recently, the laboratory has become interested in polymer engineering biotechnology advancements at Stanford, such as resorbable microneedle minimally invasive technology to deposit molecules and cells of interest painlessly into superficial tissues. Dr. Nayak’s group hopes to harness their findings to better understand nasal biology in both health and disease, and provide new ways to treat common and debilitating inflammatory nasal and sinus disorders such as chronic rhinosinusitis. Their findings may also create functional respiratory mucosal tissue grafting material for upper and lower airway restoration in patients after surgery, battlefield injuries, or environmental damage.


Grillet Lab

Nicolas Grillet:   I am currently wrapping-up my post-doctoral training with Ulrich Muller at The Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, CA, and I am very excited to join the Department of Otolaryngology of the School of Medicine at Stanford University in early 2014 to start my independent research program.

My research aims to understand how the inner ear function and to identify the genes that are responsible for hearing loss. This knowledge is key to be able to restore or prevent hearing deficits. For my research I am using the mouse model because it is the most powerful for the genetics studies, and also because the mouse inner ear is very similar to the human one. Using this approach I could identify a new gene leading to deafness in mice but also in human, called Loxhd1 (DFNB77). I also made important discoveries about the knowledge of the sound-sensitive apparatus of the sensory cells of the inner ear, the hair cells: I in particular demonstrated that the product of a gene leading to the USHER syndrome in human (deafness associated with blindness), called Harmonin (USH1C), is necessary for the optimal sensitivity of hair cells to sound. I will pursue this successful approach at the department.

This end of year we are submitting to publication a technical breakthrough that we made in the field of hearing research. Indeed to study the inner ear, we need to overexpress or downregulate some genes to understand their function. Unfortunately the hair cells have been very resistant to any approaches. With this new technique we can finally efficiently and quickly assess the location of a gene product and its function in vitro. This method is going to accelerate the pace of discovery in the hearing research.


Blevins Lab

Dr Nikolas Blevins has focused on the development and application of technology to augment microsurgical approaches to the ear and skull base.  This includes the use of computer modeling and immersive surgical simulation for education and preoperative planning.  Their current software platform allows users to rapidly upload patient-specific imaging studies and rehearse surgical approaches prior to undertaking complex procedures in the operating room.  The team is looking forward to the continued refinement, validation, and dissemination of the system in the coming year.

Additionally, Dr. Blevins continues to collaborate with Dr. Ricci, Dr. Schnitzer, and Dr. Salisbury to develop minimally invasive techniques for inner ear access and manipulation.  Long seen as being unapproachable by non-destructive procedures, the inner ear is becoming more accessible with the application of new surgical techniques, microendoscopic imaging, and microrobotic technology.  By combining, developing, and refining new approaches, the team is building methods to better access, image, and restore the inner ear.



Dr. Robert Jackler heads SRITA (Stanford Research Into the Impact of Tobacco Advertising), a research group focused exclusively upon the study of tobacco advertising. The SRITA collection contains over 20,000 print and video tobacco advertisements of which over 14,000 are available in a searchable database online.  Presently, the research group is focused on the study of electronic cigarette marketing, a rapidly emerging set of products which are currently subject to virtually no regulation.   They have already assembled approximately 2000 eCig advertisements which may be viewed on the SRITA website. This unique collection provides a rich resource to analyze the devices utilized in eCig marketing, to compare and contrast eCig advertising methods with those used in tobacco, and to track and trend the evolution of the eCig advertising practice in response to rapidly changing market and regulatory environments.

––Stefan Heller, PhD, Chief of Research Division (December 17, 2013)


Highlighted OHNS Research Publications for 2013

Bravo, D.T., Soudry, E., Edward, J.A., Le, W., Nguyen, A.L., Hwang, P.H., Sanyal, M., and Nayak, J.V. (2013). Characterization of human upper airway epithelial progenitors. International forum of allergy & rhinology 3, 841-847.

Cai, H., Jackson, R.P., Steele, C.R., and Puria, S. (2013). Acoustics-structure interactions in the human middle ear produce variety of motion modes at the malleus-incus complex. J Acoust Soc Am 134, 4228.

Chan, S., Conti, F., Salisbury, K., and Blevins, N.H. (2013). Virtual reality simulation in neurosurgery: technologies and evolution. Neurosurgery 72 Suppl 1, 154-164.

Cho, D.Y., Nayak, J.V., Bravo, D.T., Le, W., Nguyen, A., Edward, J.A., Hwang, P.H., Illek, B., and Fischer, H. (2013a). Expression of dual oxidases and secreted cytokines in chronic rhinosinusitis. International forum of allergy & rhinology 3, 376-383.

Cho, S.I., Gao, S.S., Xia, A., Wang, R., Salles, F.T., Raphael, P.D., Abaya, H., Wachtel, J., Baek, J., Jacobs, D., et al. (2013b). Mechanisms of hearing loss after blast injury to the ear. PLoS One 8, e67618.

Corrales, C.E., and Blevins, N.H. (2013). Imaging for evaluation of cholesteatoma: current concepts and future directions. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 21, 461-467.

Forsslund, J., Chan, S., Selesnick, J., Salisbury, K., Silva, R.G., and Blevins, N.H. (2013). The effect of haptic degrees of freedom on task performance in virtual surgical environments. Studies in health technology and informatics 184, 129-135.

Gao, S.S., Raphael, P.D., Wang, R., Park, J., Xia, A., Applegate, B.E., and Oghalai, J.S. (2013). In vivo vibrometry inside the apex of the mouse cochlea using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Biomedical optics express 4, 230-240.

Gross, E., Sunwoo, J.B., and Bui, J.D. (2013). Cancer immunosurveillance and immunoediting by natural killer cells. Cancer journal 19, 483-489.

Guo, Z., Grimm, C., Becker, L., Ricci, A.J., and Heller, S. (2013). A novel ion channel formed by interaction of TRPML3 with TRPV5. PLoS One 8, e58174.

Heller, S. (2013). Special issue on inner ear development and regeneration. Hear Res 297, 1-2.

Herget, M., Scheibinger, M., Guo, Z., Jan, T.A., Adams, C.M., Cheng, A.G., and Heller, S. (2013). A simple method for purification of vestibular hair cells and non-sensory cells, and application for proteomic analysis. PLoS One 8, e66026.

Ho, A.S., Tsao, G.J., Chen, F.W., Shen, T., Kaplan, M.J., Colevas, A.D., Fischbein, N.J., Quon, A., Le, Q.T., Pinto, H.A., et al. (2013). Impact of positron emission tomography/computed tomography surveillance at 12 and 24 months for detecting head and neck cancer recurrence. Cancer 119, 1349-1356.

Jan, T.A., Chai, R., Sayyid, Z.N., van Amerongen, R., Xia, A., Wang, T., Sinkkonen, S.T., Zeng, Y.A., Levin, J.R., Heller, S., et al. (2013). Tympanic border cells are Wnt-responsive and can act as progenitors for postnatal mouse cochlear cells. Development 140, 1196-1206.

Kim, N., Steele, C.R., and Puria, S. (2013). Superior-semicircular-canal dehiscence: effects of location, shape, and size on sound conduction. Hear Res 301, 72-84.

Liu, J., Zhang, L., Winterroth, L.C., Garcia, M., Weiman, S., Wong, J.W., Sunwoo, J.B., and Nadeau, K.C. (2013). Epigenetically mediated pathogenic effects of phenanthrene on regulatory T cells. Journal of toxicology 2013, 967029.

Peng, A.W., Effertz, T., and Ricci, A.J. (2013). Adaptation of Mammalian auditory hair cell mechanotransduction is independent of calcium entry. Neuron 80, 960-972.

Pollonini, L., Olds, C., Abaya, H., Bortfeld, H., Beauchamp, M.S., and Oghalai, J.S. (2013). Auditory cortex activation to natural speech and simulated cochlear implant speech measured with functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Hear Res.

Ricci, A.J., Bai, J.P., Song, L., Lv, C., Zenisek, D., and Santos-Sacchi, J. (2013). Patch-clamp recordings from lateral line neuromast hair cells of the living zebrafish. J Neurosci 33, 3131-3134.

Schnee, M.E., Castellano-Munoz, M., and Ricci, A.J. (2013). Response properties from turtle auditory hair cell afferent fibers suggest spike generation is driven by synchronized release both between and within synapses. J Neurophysiol 110, 204-220.

Shin, J.H., Zhang, L., Murillo-Sauca, O., Kim, J., Kohrt, H.E., Bui, J.D., and Sunwoo, J.B. (2013). Modulation of natural killer cell antitumor activity by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110, 12391-12396.

Soons, J., Puria, S., and Steele, C.R. (2013). Finite element model of feed-forward/feed-backward amplification in the mouse cochlea. J Acoust Soc Am 134, 4063.

Volkenstein, S., Oshima, K., Sinkkonen, S.T., Corrales, C.E., Most, S.P., Chai, R., Jan, T.A., van Amerongen, R., Cheng, A.G., and Heller, S. (2013). Transient, afferent input-dependent, postnatal niche for neural progenitor cells in the cochlear nucleus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110, 14456-14461.

Vu, A.A., Nadaraja, G.S., Huth, M.E., Luk, L., Kim, J., Chai, R., Ricci, A.J., and Cheng, A.G. (2013). Integrity and regeneration of mechanotransduction machinery regulate aminoglycoside entry and sensory cell death. PLoS One 8, e54794.

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