Annual Message From The Chair

We Continue to Grow

2015 marks the 12th year since Stanford Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery emerged as an independent department. This period has seen substantial growth in our clinical, educational, and research programs. In 2003, the year we became a department, we had 7 faculty (5 permanent faculty and 2 instructors). We begin 2015 with 42 faculty (35 permanent faculty and 7 Instructors). Our residency program has increased from 16 to 21 and we have added 2 ACGME accredited fellowships (pediatrics, neurotology).

The small division of 2003 has now grown into a sizable department of 230 individuals with an FY 15 annual budget of over $25 million. The departmental endowment totals $25.1 million, which includes 4 endowed chairs. Our commitment to basic and translational research is well illustrated by the growth of our annual research budget from under $5,000 (2003) to over $7.8 million (2014). The departmental faculty and trainees have more than 45 competitive extramural grants and are principal investigator on 12 NIH R-01 awards.

Over the last academic year we have welcomed 10 new faculty: Chris Holsinger (head & neck), Lisa Orloff (head & neck), Nicolas Grillet (hearing science), Elizabeth DiRenzo (speech science), Heather Starmer (speech-swallowing therapy), Stanley Liu (sleep surgery), Douglas Sidell (pediatric), Jennifer Lee (comprehensive ENT), Matthew Fitzgerald (chief of audiology) and Mai Thy Truong (pediatric). In 2015 we expect to add 3 additional new faculty: rhinology, vestibular neurotology, and comprehensive ENT.

OHNS Faculty 2015

OHNS Faculty in Leadership Roles

Stanford OHNS is well represented among the school and medical center and school leadership. Lloyd Minor is the School of Medicine Dean, Peter Koltai is immediate past Chief of Staff at Stanford Children’s, and Ed Damrose has been elected the SHC Vice Chief of Staff leading to Chief of Staff in 1.5 years. Once again this year, OHNS was the highest ranked Stanford department on US News.


What's New for 2015

New Interdisciplinary Head & Neck Cancer Center

Working with Stanford Hospital and the Stanford Cancer Center, in March 2014 we launched the Interdisciplinary Head & Neck Cancer Center on the third floor of the Blake Wilbur building. This effort was lead by our dynamic new head and neck division chief, Chris Holsinger. This project encompassed major expansion of clinical facilities and acquisition of substantial new high tech equipment. The model brings together surgeons, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, and therapists (voice and swallowing) in an integrated center focused on the care of the head and neck cancer patient. This new center emphasizes an interdisciplinary, coordinated approach to care and maximizes patient convenience. 

New Stanford Ear Institute

We opened the Stanford Ear Institute on June 30, 2014.  This ambitious project has involved years of planning, architectural design, acquisition of much new equipment, configuration of integrated patient pathways, and personnel recruitments and changes. The SEI hearing health care concept emphasizes integrated, multidisciplinary care incorporating a continuum of audiological testing, medical diagnosis and treatment, and rehabilitation for both adults and children. The SEI includes 12 microscope equipped exam rooms  (6 adult, 6 pediatric), 12 dual chamber sound proof booths (6 adult, 6 pediatric), Auditory evoked response lab, Vestibular diagnostics (VNG, VEMP, rotating chair), Hearing aid laboratory, Cochlear Implant Center, and an advanced balance center (Bertec platform, rotating chair, VNG, VEMP) and vestibular PT/rehabilitation.  The SEI hearing health care concept emphasizes integrated, multidisciplinary care incorporating a continuum of audiological testing, medical diagnosis and treatment, and rehabilitation.

New Facial Plastic Surgery Suite

A stylish new facial plastic surgery suite in our home building of 801 Welch Road is expected to open in the spring of 2015. This beautiful new facility will have 3 exam rooms, a separate entrance, and private waiting area with special amenities. It will also have space for both a photo studio and an aesthetician to better serve our patient needs.

New Sleep Surgery Facility

Anticipated in the fall of 2015 is our new sleep surgery clinic with 4 specialized exam rooms, a large procedure room, and a dental lab. This new facility will be located at our Redwood City satellite adjacent to the Sleep Medicine program and Sleep Labs.

Clinical Programs

Our clinical services continue their traditional double-digit growth annually – a trend which has been sustained annually for over a decade. Our focus is on high quality tertiary care of complex diseases in the head and neck region. We have 8 clinical divisions: facial plastics, head & neck surgery, laryngology, otology/neurotology, pediatric, rhinology, sleep surgery, and comprehensive ENT. Space does not permit a full accounting of our areas of expertise, but I will highlight a few noteworthy examples.

Our clinical programs are housed in a number of locations. Laryngology, rhinology, facial plastic surgery, and comprehensive ENT are all housed in our departmental home building at 801 Welch Road on the Stanford campus. Our head and neck surgery program occupies most of the 3rd floor of the Blake-Wilbur building adjacent to our home building. Across the street is our pediatric clinics at the Mary Johnson Center. Otology/neurotology is situated at the Stanford Ear Institute at Watson Court and sleep surgery at our Redwood City satellite.

In our Head & Neck Surgery Division, Chief Chris Holsinger leads our innovative transoral robotic program in which he is joined by Drs. Damrose, Capasso, and Sirjani. Lisa Orloff heads our very active thyroid-parathyroid program and is internationally renowned for her expertise in ultrasound. She is joined in head and neck endocrine surgery by Drs. Sunwoo and Holsinger. Dr. Davud Sirjani focuses on salivary gland surgery while Dr. John Sunwoo has special expertise in melanoma. Vasu Divi is our surgeon who expertly performs microvascular free flap reconstructions. Michael Kaplan is our highly versatile, extremely busy, senior head and neck cancer surgeon. Speech therapist Ann Kearny provides care for post-laryngectomy voice restoration patients and Heather Starmer supports patients with swallowing disorders.

In our Rhinology Division, Chief Peter Hwang is constantly surrounded by international observation and our residents have begun calling it the “Hwangterage.” Peter does a huge amount of complex endoscopic sinus surgery, often taking on the most challenging cases. Both he and Dr. Jayakar Nayak collaborate with neurosurgical colleagues on minimally invasive endoscopic skull base surgery including a substantial census of pituitary tumors. Dr. Nayak helped to develop a transnasal approach to the odontoid. The Stanford Sinus Center provides integrated care including cone beam CT imaging and allergic management by allergy specialists on site.

In our Laryngology Division, Chief Ed Damrose has special interests in rehabilitation of laryngeal paralysis and cancer of the larynx. His colleague Dr. Kwang Sung does a wide array of in office laryngeal procedures, including those requiring use of the laser. Kwang also has a strong interest in care of the professional voice, especially in entertainers. Speech therapist Elizabeth DiRenzo provides care for voice disorders.

In our Sleep Surgery Division, Chief Robson Capasso tackles a wide variety of procedures to alleviate obstructive sleep apnea and snoring. Dr. Capasso is especially sophisticated in management of sleep disorders as he is dual trained in sleep medicine and sleep surgery. His colleague Dr. Stanley Liu, an MD/DDS oral surgeon specializes in reconstruction of the facial skeleton, such a maxillomandibular advancement, to open severe constrained upper airways.

In our Pediatric Division, Chief Anna Messner is highly experienced in the management of a wide variant of ear, nose and throat disorders in children.  She has a long-standing interest in congenital tongue tie. Peter Koltai focuses his interest on sleep disorders in children while Douglas Sidell tackles complicated airway problems such as subglottic stenosis. Mai Thy Truong is a highly skilled pediatric ENT able to handle a wide spectrum of children’s problems. Drs. Chang, Cheng, and Oghalai focus on pediatric otology (see below).

In our Facial Plastics Division, Chief Sam Most has built a highly successful aesthetic and reconstructive facial plastic surgery practice. Sam, who is known for his refined aesthetic sense and technical excellence, has special interests in rhinoplasty, alleviation of facial paralysis, and rejuvenation of the aging face.  Oral surgeon Dr. Stanley Liu has a special interest in facial trauma and computer assisted, minimally invasive repair of facial fractures.

In our Otology-Neurotology Division, Chief Nikolas Blevins is a renaissance surgeon handling all aspects of ear care and microsurgery. The Children’s Hearing Center, lead by Dr. John Oghalai, includes Drs. Kay Chang and Alan Cheng. Dr. Chang is a leading expert in reconstruction of congenitally deformed ears (microtia and atresia). Our very active cochlear implant center includes 4 surgeons (Drs. Blevins, Chang, Cheng, and Oghalai).

In our Comprehensive Otolaryngology Division, faculty members Jennifer Lee and Peter Li expertly manage a wide spectrum of otolaryngology medical and surgical diseases.

Education Programs

Our educational programs are thriving with 21 residents, 10 instructor/fellows, dozens of Stanford and visiting medical students on rotation throughout the year, post-docs, graduate students, and visiting scholars. The exceptional quality of today’s trainees insures that the future of our specialty will be in the best of hands. Our residents are having great success in obtaining fellowship positions and the graduates of our instructor/fellows programs obtain excellent faculty positions. We have undertaken a number of initiatives designed to enhance the educational value of our website. OHNS grand rounds and CME courses are available online on our departmental iTunes channel and nearly 2000 original illustrations are online in our skull base, neurotology, and otology atlases.

We have completed our departmental introductory textbook, a multi-authored work created entirely by our faculty and trainees and are in the process of making it available online. The text is targeted primarily for medical students, beginning residents, and patients interested in a reliable source of sophisticated medical information. The concept is to make available a well-illustrated online text, continuously updated, and made freely available to trainees and patients worldwide. Under the editorial leadership of Jennifer Lee, Candace Pau, and James Tysome this 72 chapter project has taken a couple of years to produce and has several hundred original illustrations by Christine Gralapp. As a funded pilot project, we will augment the written material with a series of 10-minute topical videos (the concept is “Khan Academy” for OHNS).

Nik Blevins and a team of computer scientists and engineers have created a haptic reinforced sinus and temporal bone surgical simulator. Our Perkins Microsurgery Teaching Laboratory has newly installed LED based microscopes with high definition video displays. Kwang Sung utilized the microsurgery lab for performing a phonomicrosugical simulation study with the residents. In June/July, 2014 Jennifer Lee, one of our recently-hired comprehensive otolaryngologists, trained in designing surgical simulation training, led all OHNS residents through simulations on “Carotid blowout” and “Angioedema.”  She will be conducting another set of new simulations in January 2015. For student use, we purchased two otoscopy simulators; one for the department and the other was donated to the medical school’s simulation facility.

Working with the Stanford Faculty Development Center (SFDC), we launched our surgical teaching course earlier this year. Anna Messner, an SFDC-trained facilitator, taught two of these courses in the spring and summer to a group of OHNS faculty and to our newly-minted fellows and chief residents. Kelly Skeff and Georgette Stratos, who travel around the globe to provide teacher trainings, also presented a 4-hour version of this course at the Society of University Otolaryngologists annual meeting to an audience of nearly 200 faculty.

Since last year, our medical student clerkship has become more robust with a didactic series dedicated to medical students. Students now have talks with a faculty or fellow four days a week, no matter how small their cohort. These talks have been a big hit with our students through the years and we are delighted to be able to offer more to them. About twenty Stanford students rotate in our department as part of the general surgery core clerkship; and approximately 20 sub-I’s come from other institutions. Our visiting sub-I rotation has become quite popular and competitive and draws high caliber applicants from around the country.

Programmatic Initiatives for 2015

Medical Device/Entrepreneurship Track

We are developing a framework, in collaboration with bioengineering, biodesign, and industry partners for creation of residency and fellowship training opportunities in medical device invention. We are also encouraging faculty engagement and participation in medical device development with the goal of establishing this field as a scholarly and research focus in the department.

Clinical trials infrastructure

While our department has strong basic and translational research, we need to build a stronger clinical trials support infrastructure. In the coming year we plan to set up clinical trials support cores at the Freidenrich Center for Translational Research for cancer programs and at Watson Court for the remainder of our department clinical research.

Initiation of Voice Science Research Program

The recruitment of laryngeal researcher – voice therapist Elizabeth DiRenzo, PhD (started 10/1/14) is intended to spur clinical and translational research across the division. The goal for 2015 is to initiate the vocal cord biology research program and to further develop and implement our conceptual proposal to develop novel approaches to overcoming vocal cord paralysis.

Our Community

Organized by Stanford medical student Noel Ayoub under the mentorship of head and neck surgeon John Sunwoo, we held our second annual Oral Cancer Screening day in November. Our tradition of pursing global health engagement included visits to Zimbabwe and Ethiopia by our physicians this year. OHNS professor, and medical school dean Lloyd Minor is pursuing educational partnerships with Asian medical schools. In addition, numerous otolaryngologists from around the world came to our department as visiting observers for periods from a week to an entire year.

Our cochlear implant program hosted the Baker Institute summer camp for implanted children and their families on the Stanford campus, a program led by Nik Blevins.  With support form the AP Gianni Foundation and collaboration with the Peninsula Oral School, this group overcomes the challenges of distance from our center by conducting virtual tele-therapy sessions remotely and using iPad in a program called “Babytalk.”

Alumni News

Visiting professor Albert Mudry, who is probably the only otolaryngologist who also has earned a PhD in history, and I are writing a history of Stanford OHNS. This spans from the Stanford predecessor schools in the 19th century to the present and will be close to 50 pages long. We have compiled a list of discoveries and inventions introduced by department members and also a complete roster of Stanford OHNS residents since the program was founded in 1909.  We expect to have a comprehensive history on our website during 2015.

Research Overview

The central theme of Stanford OHNS basic and translational research is to seek a better understanding of diseases in our field and inventing new therapies. Our research group, which is a mixture of basic scientists and surgeon – scientists, enjoys numerous collaborations throughout Stanford bioscience and technology. A major thrust of our research is to overcome hearing loss through regenerative means. To achieve this goal we have created the Stanford Initiative to Cure Hearing Loss, which is a long term, goal oriented, multidisciplinary research effort. (Heller, Ricci, Oghalai, Cheng, Mustapha, Chang, Grillet, Blevins, Fitzgerald, Jackler, and Minor)  Important laboratory research is also being conducted in cancer immunology/cancer stem cells (Sunwoo), nasal mucosal development and regeneration (Nayak). Our laboratory facilities expanded in 2014 with the addition of research space on the 4th floor of the Grant building.  Using departmental and donated funds, we invested further strengthening of our core facilities with the addition of a Fluidigm system and an additional state-of-the-art confocal microscope. Our imaging core includes scanning and spinning disk confocal microscopes, multi photon, swept field, a cryostat, 3D rendering software (Volocity), deconvolution, and image analysis. Our basic and translational research group published 38 papers in the past year including a number in high-end journals. At our 5th annual research retreat in December, the entire department participated and each of our faculty presented their research plans for the coming year. Both extramural funding and philanthropy remain strong. Our research budget for the year is $7.8 million.

––Robert K. Jackler, MD (December 1, 2014)


Research Division Report

By Research Division Leader, Stefan Heller, PhD


In 2014, we welcomed a new faculty member, Nicolas Grillet, PhD. The Grillet laboratory has opened its doors on April 1st 2014 to focus on the genetics of hearing loss, but also to understand the function of the specialized cells of the inner ear at the molecular level. While installation of sophisticated new equipment and lab personnel recruitment are ongoing, Dr. Grillet has published important work from his previous position at The Scripps Research Institute: First, a new method to introduce genes into hair cells (Xiong, Nature Methods, 2014), which is a major advance in the field allowing researchers to manipulate these key cells for the hearing process directly and with unprecedented precision. Secondly, he was part of the team that identified and characterized a new component of the mechanoelectrical transduction machinery that allows sensory hair cells to convert mechanical stimulation such as sound waves into electrical signals (Zhao, Neuron, 2014). 

The Oghalai laboratory is continuing to make progress on imaging and measuring vibrations within the mouse and human inner ear. Their goal is to understand how the cochlea processes speech, with the hope of recreating these properties in hearing-impaired patients. For example, they recently discovered that sharp frequency tuning within the mammalian cochlea derives from the mechanical properties of supporting cells within the organ of Corti (Gao et al., 2014, J Neurophysiol). On the clinical side, the Children’s Hearing Center is running well and is routinely accruing cochlear implant patients for clinical trials. Initial results have been published, which demonstrate that the ability of a cochlear implant to stimulate the language portion of the brain can be measured using a simple, non-invasive imaging technique (Pollonini et al., 2014, Hear Res).

Alan Cheng’s research group has made important steps in the past year towards the goal of regenerating lost hair cells in the inner ear towards curing hearing loss. The most significant finding was the discovery that the cochlea of the newborn mouse can spontaneously regenerate lost hair cells (Cox et al., Development 2014), and that regenerated hair cells originated from a specific population of cochlear cells, a subtype of so-called supporting cells (Chai et al., PNAS 2012). These findings can now teach us the instructive cues for mammalian hair cell regeneration, a first step towards developing a successive strategy to bring back these cells in patients. Dr. Cheng has received a 5yr R01 research grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to examine such instructive cues in both the newborn and the mature cochlea. Teaming up with Stefan Heller and John Oghalai, Dr. Cheng has also received funding from the Department of Defense to further characterize the newly discovered regenerative supporting cells with the goal of finding the right cocktail of drugs to make the mature cochlea more regenerative. On a second direction and in collaboration with Tony Ricci, both groups have collaboratively succeeded in generating non-ototoxic aminoglycosides (Huth et al., J Clin Investin press).  These novel drugs are able to preserve hearing and successfully eliminate infection in animals. On-going efforts are to produce more and better non-ototoxic aminoglycosides to battle different types of infection, which ultimately could benefit millions of patients worldwide and principally eliminate aminoglycoside ototoxicity as cause for hearing loss.

Stefan Heller’s research group has completed a transition phase where they implemented novel technologies to study the biology of individual inner ear cells. The apparatus enabling OHNS researchers to use this technology were purchased with support of the Stanford Initiative to Cure Hearing loss. Several laboratories of the OHNS research group are now using this novel core technology. The study of individual cells allows the researchers in the Heller group and in the department to solve the long-standing problem of paucity of inner ear cells. Compared to the retina or nose, the number of cochlear cells is thousand-fold lower per animal, which has greatly hampered research towards curing hearing loss. The study of single cells required the development of novel data analysis strategies and first publications arose from these studies (Durruthy-Durruthy et al., 2014a, Cell; Durruthy-Durruthy et al., Nature Protocols, in press).  In other ongoing research lines, the Heller laboratory generated for the first time human inner ear sensory hair cells from embryonic stem cells (Ronaghi et al, 2014, Stem Cells and Development). This research has now laid a foundation to study inner ear cells generated from patients with genetic mutations that cause hearing loss. The Heller lab has recruited patients who donated skin cells for this laboratory research in 2014, which is aimed to recreate in a culture dish the defective cells that cause hearing loss. This will help in understanding the causes for hearing loss, which is a first step towards finding ways to mitigate these causes. 

The Mustapha laboratory published a study describing the role of a group of proteins known as thrombospondins in the development and function of synapses in the cochlea and vestibular organs (Mendus et al., 2014, European Journal of Neuroscience). These mouse studies indicate that thrombospondin genes are candidate genes for screening in patients with inner ear dysfunction of unknown etiology. They also discovered that cochlear development and function are independent of the immune system factors required for proper development of the retinal and brain neuronal systems. While there could be other genes expressed in the cochlea that compensate for these differences, the result (Calton et al., 2014, PLoS One) was interesting and informative because it demonstrates the complexity of neural development of the inner ear.

The Nayak laboratory has made progressive breakthroughs in its research efforts regarding upper airway biology. The lab has been able to define and isolate both upper airway stem cells populations from both the human and mouse cavity and sinuses. These nasal epithelial basal cells (NEBCs) have defined ‘reservoirs’ or ‘crypts’ where they reside in the human and mouse nasal epithelium, and their cellular properties are under active investigation.  Two manuscripts describing these novel cell types are under peer review, one has been published (Cho et al., 2014, Stem Cell Research and Therapy). The work was also presented as an invited presentation at the 2013 Keystone Meeting on Lung Repair, Regeneration, and Cancer, the top meeting in the field of airway biology that year.  Along with collaborators and eminet airway biologists Drs. Mark Krasnow and Tushar Desai at Stanford, Dr. Nayak is hoping to undertake the first upper airway cell transplantation experiments in 2015, to better understand how these primary cells may be exploited in cell-based therapies to treat a number of sinus and pulmonary conditions. In addition, Dr. Nayak’s laboratory has forged a fruitful collaboration with Dr. Lee Herzenberg at Stanford to identify overlooked human immune cell populations that may contribute to chronic rhinosinusitis in patients, using tissue from consented patients undergoing surgery for sinusitis. In the past year, his group has discovered two human B lymphocyte populations, IgD+ and IgE+ plasmablasts, that solely exist in the nasal tissues of patients with sinusitis, but not the circulating blood of these same patients or healthy controls. The initial findings of this work are in press in the International Forum of Allergy and Rhinology, and 2 additional manuscripts are pending submission.

The Sunwoo laboratory has continued to make advances in our understanding of how the immune system interfaces with head and neck cancer, particularly a tumor-initiating cell population called “cancer stem cells.” This year, they published a paper in Oncotarget, describing a novel functional marker of these cells, called CD271, and received a new grant from the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research of the NIH to investigate this receptor. Dr. Sunwoo also received two other new grants this year. One of these is an R21 grant from the National Cancer Institute of the NIH through the “Provocative Questions” initiative to study how the immune system recognizes cancer cells at the earliest stage of malignant transformation before a tumor is clinically detectable. He also received a grant from the Stanford Cancer Institute, as a co-PI with Dr. Susan Swetter of Dermatology, to study immune-related mechanisms underlying the differences in outcome between men and women with melanoma. Recently, Dr. Sunwoo’s group identified a novel mechanism by which head and neck cancer stem cells can suppress T cell activation, and this work was presented at the annual Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer meeting in Maryland. Finally, the Sunwoo laboratory has collaborated on a number of projects related to cancer and cancer immunology. One on nasopharyngeal carcinoma resulted in a publication in Cancer, and another on the potentiation of cetuximab, in collaboration with Drs. Holbrook Kohrt, Dimitri Colevas, and Ron Levy, resulted in a publication in the Journal of Clinical Investigation.

The Ricci laboratory continues to focus on understanding the molecular mechanisms of hair cell mechanotransduction (sound converting to an electrical signal) and hair cell synaptic transmission (how the hair cell communicates with the brain). Loss or degradation of either of these processes leads to significant hearing loss and deafness for which to date there are no treatments. In 2014, they have directed their attention to better understanding how the hair cell sensory bundle translates a mechanical deflection into an electrical signal and they surprisingly found that the cell membrane at the mechanosensitive tips of the hair cells’ stereocilia (“the hairs”) plays an important role in this process. This finding adds to a growing group of recent discoveries that the mechanism by which sound detectors in the mammalian cochlea work differ from the traditional model systems for these investigations. By developing better technology, Ricci’s research group hopes to continue to identify new target sites for clinical intervention. Similarly they have found that hair cell synaptic transmission is quite different in the mammalian systems than in lower vertebrates. The next goals for this research include identifying the role of novel molecules that regulate this process. And finally they have completed a proof of principal study that shows that aminoglycoside antibiotics can be modified in a manner that retains antimicrobial activity but loses ototoxicity. These data should provide a means of eliminating the devastating side effects of aminoglycoside antibiotics thereby preventing hearing loss in many patients worldwide.


Grillet laboratory:

Xiong W, Wagner TF, Linxuan Y, Grillet N, Müller U.
Using injectoporation to deliver genes to mechanosensory hair cells. 
Nature Methods. 2014 Oct;9(10):2438-49

Zhao B, Wu Z, Grillet N, Yan L, Xiong W, Harkins-Perry S, Müller U.
TMIE is an essential component of the mechanotransduction machinery of cochlear hair cells. Neuron. In Press


Oghalai laboratory (basic science publications):

Gao SS, Wang R, Raphael PD, Moayedi Y, Groves AK, Zuo J, Applegate BE, Oghalai JS. Vibration of the organ of Corti within the cochlear apex in mice. J Neurophysiol , 2014.

Pollonini L, Olds C, Abaya H, Bortfeld H, Beauchamp MS, Oghalai JS.Auditory cortex activation to natural speech and simulated cochlear implant speech measured with functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Hear Res 309: 84–93, 2014.

Moayedi Y, Basch ML, Pacheco NL, Gao SS, Wang R, Harrison W, Xiao N, Oghalai JS, Overbeek PA, Mardon G, Groves AK. The candidate splicing factor sfswap regulates growth and patterning of inner ear sensory organs. PLoS Genet 10: e1004055, 2014.

Park J, Carbajal EF, Chen X, Oghalai JS, Applegate BE. Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography using an Vernier-tuned distributed Bragg reflector swept laser in the mouse middle ear. [Online]. Opt Lett 39: 6233–6, 2014. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25361322 [11 Nov. 2014].


Oghalai laboratory (clinical science publications):

Alyono JCJ, Corrales CE, Oghalai JS. Otalgia, Facial Nerve Paralysis, and Hearing Loss. JAMA Otolaryngol Neck Surg 140: 575–576, 2014.

Caudle SE, Katzenstein JM, Oghalai JS, Lin J, Caudle DD. Nonverbal Cognitive Development in Children With Cochlear Implants: Relationship Between the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and Later Performance on the Leiter International Performance Scales-Revised. Assessment 21: 119–28, 2014.

Kumar AR, Nayak J V, Janisiewicz AM, Li G, Oghalai JS. The Combined Subtemporal-Transfacial Approach for the Resection of Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibromas with Intracranial Extension. Otol. Neurotol.( July 17, 2014). doi: 10.1097/MAO.0000000000000498.

Maria PL, Oghalai JS. Is office-based myringoplasty a suitable alternative to surgical tympanoplasty? Laryngoscope 124: 1053–4, 2014a.

Maria PL, Oghalai JS. When is the best timing for the second implant in pediatric bilateral cochlear implantation? Laryngoscope 124: 1511–2, 2014b.


Cheng laboratory:

Cox BC, Chai R, Lenoir A, Liu Z, Zhang LL, Nguyen DH, Chalasani K, Steigelman KA, Fang J, Rubel EW, Cheng AG, Zuo J. Spontaneous hair cell regeneration in the neonatal mouse cochlea in vivo. (2014) Development 141(4): 816-829 doi:10.1242/dev.103036. 

Chang DT, Chai R, Dimarco R, Heilshorn SC, Cheng AG. (2014) Protein-engineered hydrogel encapsulation for 3D culture of murine cochlea. Otol Neurotol (in press).

Cheng AG and Jackler RK. Congenital malformations of the inner ear. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery 5th Ed. (in press)

Cheng AG and Heller S. Hair cell regeneration. Ballenger’s Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 18th Ed. (in press)

Huth M, Han KH, Soutadeh K, Hsieh YJ, Effertz T, Vu AA, Verhoeven S, Hsieh MH, Greenhouse RJ, Cheng AGRicci AJ. Designer aminoglycosides prevent cochlear hair cell loss and hearing loss. J Clin Invest (in press).


Heller laboratory:

Ronaghi, M., Nasr, M., Ealy, M., Durruthy-Durruthy, R., Waldhaus, J., Diaz, G.H., Joubert, L.M., Oshima, K. & Heller, S. Inner Ear Hair Cell-Like Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells. Stem Cells and Development(2014). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24512547

Durruthy-Durruthy, R., Gottlieb, A., Hartman, B.H., Waldhaus, J., Laske, R.D., Altman, R. & Heller, S. Reconstruction of the Mouse Otocyst and Early Neuroblast Lineage at Single Cell Resolution. Cell 157, 964-978 (2014a). http://http://www.cell.com/cell/abstract/S0092-8674(14)00411-5

Cheng AG and Heller S. Hair cell regeneration. Ballenger’s Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 18th Ed. (in press)

Aguilar, A., Becker, L., Tedeschi, T., Heller, S., Iomini, C. & Nachury, M.V. Alpha-Tubulin K40 Acetylation is Required for Contact Inhibition of Proliferation and Cell-Substrate Adhesion. Molecular Biology of the Cell (2014). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24743598

Slattery, E.L., Oshima, K., Heller, S. & Warchol, M.E. Cisplatin Exposure Damages Resident Stem Cells of the Mammalian Inner Ear.Developmental Dynamics(2014). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24888499

Durruthy-Durruthy, R., Gottlieb, A. & Heller, S. Three-Dimensional Computational Reconstruction of Tissues with Hollow Spherical Morphologies using Single-Cell Gene Expression Data. Nature Protocols(in press)


Mustapha laboratory:

Mendus D, Sundaresan S, Grillet N, Wangsawihardja F, Leu R, Müller U, Jones SM, Mustapha M. Thrombospondins 1 and 2 are important for afferent synapse formation and function in the inner ear. The European journal of neuroscience, Jan 27. doi: 10.1111/ejn.12486, 2014.

Calton MA, Lee D, Sundaresan S, Mendus D, Leu R, Wangsawihardja F, Johnson KR and Mustapha M. A lack of immune system genes causes loss in high frequency hearing but does not disrupt cochlear synapse maturation in mice. PLoS ONE 9(5): e94549. doi: 10.1371/ journal.pone. 0094549, 2014. 


Nayak laboratory (basic science publications):

Cho KS, Park HY, Roh HJ, Bravo DT, Hwang PH, Nayak JV. Human ethmoid sinus mucosa: a promising novel tissue source of mesenchymal progenitor cells. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2014 Jan 24;5(1):15. doi: 10.1186/scrt404. PMID: 24460892

Rashan AR, Yang Y, Herzenberg L., and Nayak, J.V. (2014). B Lymphocyte and Immunoglobulin Diversity in Upper Airway Mucosal Immunity in Chronic Rhinosinusitis. In press Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2014.

Cho D-Y, Bravo DT, Le W, Nguyen AL, Edward JA, Hwang, PH, Illek, B, and Fischer, H.,and Nayak JV. Air Pollutants Cause Release of Hydrogen Peroxide and IL-8 in a Human Primary Nasal Tissue Culture Mode. In Press Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2014.


Nayak laboratory (clinical science publications):

Soudry E, Mohabir PK, Miglani A, Chen J, Nayak JV, Hwang PH. Outpatient endoscopic sinus surgery in cystic fibrosis patients: predictive factors for admission. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2014 May;4(5):416-21. doi: 10.1002/ alr.21285. PMID: 24431198.

Soudry E, Turner JH, Nayak JV, Hwang PH. Endoscopic reconstruction of surgically created skull base defects: a systematic review. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2014 May;150(5):730-8. doi: 10.1177/0194599814520685. PMID: 24493791.

Choudhri O, Mindea SA, Feroze A, Soudry E, Chang SD, Nayak JV.Experience with intraoperative navigation and imaging during endoscopic transnasal spinal approaches to the foramen magnum and odontoid.  Neurosurg Focus. 2014 Mar;36(3):E4. doi: 10.3171/2014.1. FOCUS13533. PMID:24580005.

Ali MJ, Nayak JV, Vaezeafshar R, Li G, Psaltis AJ. Anatomic relationship of nasolacrimal duct and major lateral wall landmarks: cadaveric study with surgical implications. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2014 Aug;4(8):684-8. doi: 10.1002/ alr.21345. Epub 2014 May 20. PMID: 24845875.

Kumar AR, Nayak JV, Janisiewicz AM, Li G, Oghalai JSThe Combined Subtemporal-Transfacial Approach for the Resection of Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibromas with Intracranial Extension. Otol Neurotol. 2014 Jul 17. PMID:25036780.

Soudry E, Psaltis AJ, Lee KH, Vaezafshar R, Nayak JV, Hwang PH.Complications associated with the pedicled nasoseptal flap for skull base reconstruction. Laryngoscope. 2014 Aug 11. doi: 10.1002/lary.24863. PMID:25111727.

Cho KS, Soudry E, Psaltis AJ, Nadeau KC, McGhee SA, Nayak JV, Hwang PH. Long-term sinonasal outcomes of aspirin desensitization in aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2014 Oct;151(4):575-81. doi: 10.1177/0194599814545750. Epub 2014 Aug 12. PMID:25118195.

Costa ML, Psaltis AJ, Nayak JV, Hwang PH. Long-term outcomes of endoscopic maxillary mega-antrostomy for refractory chronic maxillary sinusitis. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2014 Oct 13. doi: 10.1002/alr.21407. PMID: 25312656.

Mohammadi F, Rashan A, Psaltis A, Janisewicz A, Li P; El-Sawy Y, Nayak JV. Intraocular pressure changes in emergent surgical decompression of orbital compartment syndrome. In Press JAMA Otolarynglogy – Head Neck Surg 2014.

Burns TC,  Mindea, SA, Pendharkar AV, Lapustea NB, Irime I, Nayak, JV. Endoscopic Transnasal Approach for Urgent Decompression of the Craniocervical Junction in Acute Skull Base Osteomyelitis. In press. J Neurol Surg Rep 2014.


Ricci laboratory:

Effertz T, Scharr AL, Ricci AJ (in press) The how and why of identifying the hair cell mechano-electrical transduction channel. Pflugers Arch.

Castellano-Munoz M, Ricci AJ Role of intracellular calcium stores in hair-cell ribbon synapse. Front Cell Neurosci 8:162

Soons JA, Ricci AJ, Steele CR, Puria S (in press) Cytoarchitecture of the Mouse Organ of Corti from base to apex, determined using in situ two-photon imaging. J Assoc Res Otolaryngology

Iwasa, KH, Ricci, AJ, (2014) The avian tectorial membrane: Why is it tapered? D.P. Corey and K.D. Karavitak, Editors. 2014, American Institute of Physics.

Huth, ME, Han, KY, Sotoudeh, K,  Hsieh, Y, Effertz, T, Vu, AA, Verhoeven, S, Hsieh,  M, Greenhouse, R, Cheng, AGRicci, AJ (in press) Designer aminoglycosides prevent cochlear hair cell loss and hearing loss. J. Clin. Investigations.