Research

The Brain Metastases Consortium facilitates collaborative research between the many exceptional researchers and clinicians at Stanford University. These projects involve specialists from different departments, whose synergistic talents and interests when combined, exponentially advance our understanding of, and capacity to treat, metastatic brain tumors. Interests include cancer biology, radiation oncology, neuroscience, immunology, medical oncology, neurosurgery, physics, bio-engineering, neuro oncology, and population science, among others. 

Publications

Featured Publications:

Recurrently Mutated Genes Differ between Leptomeningeal and Solid Lung Cancer Brain Metastases

Authors: Yingmei Li, Boxiang Liu, Ian David Connolly, Bina Wasunga Kakusa, Wenying Pan, Seema Nagpal, Stephen B. Montgomery, Melanie Hayden Gephart

Published: Journal of Thoracic Oncology, July 2018

The Effects of Postoperative Neurological Deficits on Survival in Patients With Single Brain Metastasis

Authors: Ravi Medikonda, Christopher M. Jackson, James Feghali, Michael Lim

Published: Operative Neurosurgery, 2020


Executive Summary from American Radium Society's Appropriate Use Criteria on Neurocognition after stereotactic radiosurgery for multiple brain metastases
Authors:
Michael T Milano, Veronica L S Chiang, Scott G Soltys, Tony J C Wang, Simon S Lo, Alexandria Brackett, Seema Nagpal, Samuel Chao, Amit Kumar Garg, Siavash Jabbari, Lia M Halasz, Melanie Hayden Gephart, Jonathan P S Knisely, Arjun Sahgal, Eric L Chang
Published:
Neuro Oncology, August 2020


Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Resected Brain Metastases: Does the Surgical Corridor Need to be Targeted?Authors: Siyu Shi, Navjot Sandhu, Michael C Jin, Elyn Wang, Elisa Liu, Joseph Abi Jaoude, Kirsten Schofield, Carrie Zhang, Iris C Gibbs, Steven L Hancock, Steven D Chang, Gordon Li, Melanie Hayden Gephart, Erqi L Pollom, Scott G Soltys
Published:
Practice Radiation Oncology Journal, May 2020


Advanced Imaging of Brain Metastases: From Augmenting Visualization and Improving Diagnosis to Evaluating Treatment Response
Authors:
Elizabeth Tong, Kassie Lyn McCullagh, Michael Iv
Published:
Frontiers in Neurology, April 2020


A Phase 2 Study of Post-Operative Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for Solid Tumor Spine Metastases Authors: Kristin J Redmond, Daniel Sciubba, Majid Khan, Chengcheng Gui, Sheng-Fu Larry Lo, Ziya L Gokaslan, Brianne Leaf, Lawrence Kleinberg, Jimm Grimm, Xiaobu Ye, Michael Lim
Published:
International Journal of Radiation Oncology, February 2020


Deep learning enables automatic detection and segmentation of brain metastases on multisequence MRI Authors: Endre Grovik, Darvin Yi, Michael Iv, Elizabeth Tong, Daniel Rubin, Greg Zaharchuk 
Published:
Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, January 2020


PD-L1, PD-1, LAG-3, and TIM-3 in Melanoma: Expression in Brain Metastases Compared to Corresponding Extracranial Tumors
Authors: Jaeyun Jane Wang, Peter Burger, Janis Taube, Abha Soni, Kaisorn Chaichana, Mary Sheu, Zineb Belcaid, Christopher Jackson, Michael Lim
Published: Cureus, December 2019


Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Resected Brain Metastases: Single-Institutional Experience of Over 500 Cavities Authors: Siyu Shi, Navjot Sandhu, Michael C Jin, Elyn Wang, Joseph Abi Jaoude, Kirsten Schofield, Carrie Zhang, Elisa Liu, Iris C Gibbs, Steven L Hancock, Steven D Chang, Gordon Li, Melanie Hayden-Gephart, John R Adler, Scott G Soltys, Erqi l Pollom
Published:
International Journal of Radiation Oncology, November 2019


Nodular Leptomeningeal Disease-A Distinct Pattern of Recurrence After Postresection Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases: A Multi-institutional Study of Interobserver Reliability
Authors:
Brandon E Turner, Roshan S Prabhu, Stuart H Burri, Paul D Brown, Erqi L Pollom, Michael T Milano, Stephanie E Weiss, Michael Iv, Nancy Fischbein, Hany Soliman, Simon S Lo, Samuel T Chao, Brett W Cox, James D Murphy, Gordon Li, Melanie Hayden Gephart, Seema Nagpal, Banu Atalar, Melissa Azoulay, Reena Thomas, Gayle Tilman, Ben Y Durkee, Jennifer L Shah, Scott G Soltys
Published:
International Journal of Radiation Oncology, October 2019


Adverse Radiation Effect and Disease Control in Patients Undergoing Stereotactic Radiosurgery and Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy for Brain Metastases
Authors:
Julie L Koenig, Siyu Shi, Katherine Sborov, Michael F Gensheimer, Gordon Li, Seema Nagpal, Steven D Chang, Iris C Gibbs, Scott G Soltys, Erqi L Pollom
Published:
World Neurosurgery, June 2019


Assessing the Effectiveness of Systemic Therapy after Stereotactic Radiosurgery on Cancer Recurrence and All-Cause Mortality
Authors:
Al-Khindi T, Shen CJ, Peng L, Redmond KJ, Lim M, Lleinberg LR, Bettegowda C
Published:
World Neurosurgery, May 2019


A Multi-Institutional Analysis of Presentation and Outcomes for Leptomeningeal Disease Recurrence After Surgical Resection and Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases
Authors:
Roshan S Prabhu, Brandon E Turner, Anthony L Asher, Samuel R Marcrom, John B Fiveash, Paul M Foreman, Robert H Press, Kirtesh R Patel, Walter J Curran, William G Breen, Paul D Brown, Krishan R Jethwa, Inga S Grills, Jessica D Arden, Lauren M Foster, Matthew A Manning, Joseph D Stern, Scott G Soltys, Stuart H Burri
Published:
Neuro Oncology, March 2019


Updated risk models demonstrate low risk of symptomatic radionecrosis following stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases
Authors:
Luke Peng, Jimm Grimm, Chengcheng Gui, Colette J Shen, Kristin J Redmond, Lindsey Sloan, Sarah Hazell, Jseph Moore, Ellen Huang, Nicholas Spoleti, Wolfram Lab, Harry Quon, Chetan Bettegowda, Michael Lim, Lawrence R Kleinberg
Published:
Surgical Neurology International, March 2019


Extracranial Abscopal Responses after Radiation Therapy for Intracranial Metastases: A Review of the Clinical Literature and Commentary on Mechanism
Authors:
Chengcheng Gui, Lawrence R Kleinberg, Michael Lim, Kristin J Redmond
Published:
Cureus, March 2019


Can We Omit Radiation Therapy in the Treatment of Brain Metastases from Melanoma?
Authors: Giuseppe Minniti, Madia N Laack, Lia M Halasz, Michael D Chan, Scott G Soltys, John P Kirkpatrick
Published:
International Journal of Radiation Oncology, February 2019


Preoperative Vs Postoperative Radiosurgery For Resected Brain Metastases: A Review
Authors:
Roshan S Prabhu, Kirtesh R Patel, Robert H Press, Scott G Soltys, Paul D Brown, Minesh P Mehta, Anthony L Asher, Stuart H Burri
Published:
Neurosurgery, January 2019


Infiltrating the Blood-Brain Barrier in ALK-Positive Lung Cancer
Authors:
Jeffrey R Zweig, Joel W Neal
Published:
Journal of Clinical Oncology, September 2018


Osimertinib for EGFR-Mutant Lung Cancer with Brain Metastases: Results from a Single-Center Retrospective Study
Authors: 
Lijia Xie, Seema Nagpal, Heather A Wakelee, Gordon Li, Scott G Soltys, Joel W Neal
Published: The Oncologist,  August 2018


Combined Nivolumab and Ipilimumab in Melanoma Metastatic to the Brain
Authors: 
Hussein A. Tawbi, Peter A. Forsyth, Alain Algazi, Omid Hamid, F. Stephen Hodi, Stergios J. Moschos, Nikhil I. Khushalani, Karl Lewis, Christopher D. Lao, Michael A. Postow, Michael B. Atkins, Marc S. Ernstoff, David A. Reardon, Igor Puzanov, Ragini R. Kudchadkar, Reena P. Thomas, Ahmad Tarhini, Anna C. Pavlick, Joel Jiang, Alexandre Avila,  Sheena Demelo, Kim Margolin
Published: The New England Journal of Medicine, August 2018



Outcomes of Metastatic Brain Lesions Treated with Radioactive Cs-131 Seeds after Surgery: Experience from One Institution
Authors:
Xia Y, Mashouf L A, Baker BR, Maxwell R, Bettegowda C, Redmond KJ, Kleinberg LR, Lim M
Published:
Cureus, July 2018


Adjuvant radiotherapy and outcomes of presumed hemorrhagic melanoma brain metastases without malignant cells
Authors:
Xia Y, Mashouf L A, Maxwell R, Peng LC, Lipson EJ, Sharfman WH, Bettegowda C, Redmond KJ, Kleinberg LR, Lim M
Published:
Surgical Neurology International, July 2018


Distinguishing True Progression From Radionecrosis After Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for Brain Metastases With Machine Learning and Radiomics 
Authors:
Luke Peng, Vishwa Parekh, Peng Huang, Doris D Lin, Khadija Sheikh, Brock Baker, Talia Kirschbaum, Francesca Silvestri, Jessica Son, Adam Robinson, Ellen Huang, Heather Ames, Jimm Grimm, Linda Chen, Colette Shen, Michael Soike, Emory McTyre, Kristin Redmond, Michael Lim, Junghoon Lee, Michael A Jacobs, Lawrence Kleinberg
Published:
International Journal of Radiation Oncology, May 2018


Local recurrence patterns after postoperative stereotactic radiation surgery to resected brain metastases: A quantitative analysis to guide target delineation
Authors:
Gui C, Moore J, Grimm J, Kleinberg L, McNutt T, Shen C, Chen L, Bettegowda C, Lim M, Redmond KJ
Published:
Practice Radiation Oncology, April 2018


Concurrent Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors and Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Melanoma, and Renal Cell Carcinoma
Authors:
Chen L, Douglass J, Kleinberg L, Ye X, Marciscano AE, Forde PM, Brahmer J, Lipson E, Sharfman W, Hammers H, Naidoo J, Bettegowda C, Lim M, Redmond KJ
Published:
International Journal of Radiation Oncology, March 2018


Commentary: Treatment Considerations for Patients With Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Mutated Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Brain Metastases in the Era of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors
Authors: 
Silvia Daniela Vaca, Ian David Connolly, Clement Ho, Joel Neal, Melanie Hayden Gephart
Published: Neurosurgery, January 2018


A pooled analysis of advanced nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer patients with stable treated brain metastases in two phase II trials receiving bevacizumab and pemetrexed as second-line therapy
Authors:
Matthew A Gubens, Jody C Chuang, Wallace Akerley, Corey J Langer, Christelle Clement-Duchene, Melanie San Pedro-Salcedo, A Dimitrios Colevas, Konstantin Dragnev, Mark A Socinski, Heather A Waklee
Published:
Journal of Thoracic Disease, January 2018