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Structure of Work Principal Element

9.Work It Baby!(Compositional Records)


Artistic or intellectual creations, excluding those considered Place or Object

<Work type="intellectual" role="instance">
        <Title>Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules</Title>
                <Name>2nd ed.</Name>
            <Type set="Title Type">Other Title</Type>

The Work element is an instantiation of some collective Concept, e.g. Category: Paintings. It distinguishes artistic or intellectual creations from crafted or manufactured ones (covered by Object) or by Place for immobile structures.Work is one of the "substantive" Principal Elements due to its common manifestation in a physical "carrier" and the fact that it can be copyrighted, owned, licensed, circulated, etc.Although a three-dimensional division was attractive, the current interpretation allows more consistent inclusion of tangible art, especially sculpture, and three-dimensional cartographic material as Work. Although a lesser factor, works, regardless of dimension, also tend to share titles rather than names. This approach is not a major departure from current cataloging rules, but excludes some realia to permit the differing emphases needed for each Principal Element.

The Work element covers all types of compositions, regardless of format or representation (manuscript, print, or digital), including art, written text, audio (including music), video, software, maps, etc.The emphasis is on the work itself, its identification and delineation from other works.Work currently has two attributes:'type', tentatively with artistic and intellectual as values, and: 'role', with values of instance, authority, or authority/instance. The 'role' attribute delineates XOBIS' amalgamation of instances of "substantive" Principal Elements with their "authorities".Work has been broadened to include "authorities" for works (uniform titles, including series), which are in essence virtual works. These provide umbrella records in hierarchies of works (typically serial-analytic-component and collection-subunit, but also monograph-component-component and the collective authority-title instance situation) and provide for a flexible and unified Work element.The current separation of these is questioned, especially having a uniform title record for numbered series and/or a separate record for a serial. XOBIS follows the integrative German cataloging model to enable Relationships to work more effectively. See the Relationships section for the full range of possibilities.Later in this section, certain limitation and expansion of the role for authorities is put forth to illustrate the issue more clearly.

Work is represented by an Entry that is basically a "formal" title, usually, literally incorporating the descriptive one.This is intended to distinguish it largely from other works. Entry has an optional 'class' attribute with values: individual (includes monographic), serial, collective, and referential. It also may have 'scheme', 'language' and 'transliteration' attributes.It follows the pattern of Name for other elements, replacing it with Title and Qualifiers or the repeatable TitleSegment and Qualifiers. The provision for qualification by any other Principal Element provides flexibility in dealing with unanticipated needs. The Entry may be designated generic with a 'type' attribute to identify generic titles such as Annual Report. The TitleSegment may have a 'type' attribute to specify subtitle or section title. Various types of equivalent titles are handled by Varia.For more information on these ideas, consult the Generic Elements section above under Entry Names (particularly for context), Qualifiers, Notes and Description, and Varia.An outline below details the substructure.

General rules regulating Qualifiers would be necessary to establish consistent practice. It is postulated that routine qualification by edition and date would resolve the majority of conflicting entries without resorting to other factors.Basic edition, including an inferred first edition, and date of content would help prevent ambiguity and to signify basic sequential and chronological context. For serials, this extends to the range of years published, although open dates on titles not currently subscribed to may mislead some to think these are holdings.

Because AACR2's General Material Designators (GMDs) are so similar to form/genre terms used as values for Qualifiers in XOBIS, they have been merged in this alpha version. This raises the question of whether such a qualifier (of any Principal Element) should be broad like GMDs, e.g. Computer File, or should match the most specific hierarchical level available, e.g. Word Processor, as is found in uniform title qualifiers. Another issue is whether to routinely qualify a unique title by form or to only do so in resolving conflicts. Contrast the K-PAX and Summer of '42 examples below. When the motion picture is added, does it imply the need to add a qualifier for the book? Consistency in subarrangement would suggest this is desirable.There are many issues in music and art that have not been considered thoroughly, not the least of which is that the performance of a Work is an Event. A common pattern for Entry is shown in the introductory example above.Some additional cases are delineated below illustrating how qualification might be rendered, although this is not meant to be a complete display. A few Relationships are indicated for contrast.

When a Title has more than one part, TitleSegment is used instead. This occurs in the related titles for K-PAX above and is illustrated below.Distinguishing subtitle as part of Entry from lengthy subtitles of Description, not needed for disambiguation or clarification, is proposed. Some additional examples illustrate subtitles and section titles:

Title and TitleSegment of Entry, Varia, or Qualifier elements may carry initial non-filing characters as a string value in their 'nonfiling' attribute. This must include the space when the non-filing characters do not abut the value. This is markup for the example shown above:

    <TitleSegment type="section" nonfiling="The ">Worlds of Prot</TitleSegment>

This example illustrates how the 'type' attribute of the repeatable TitleSegment element allows a title to be treated as a sequence of segments, each qualified as needed. Each segment (base, subtitle, and repeatable section) may have initial character strings disregarded using the 'nonfiling' attribute.Internal non-filing characters can be treated as Description with the corrected form appearing in the Entry.Roman numerals could be included as is, and converted to an Arabic Variant to file correctly.

The potential for title authorities is unrealized.They are essentially collective umbrella works where traditional uniform titles and unnumbered series are concerned. Numbered series are structurally identical to serials, and serial may be thought of as a subset of collective where sequence is explicit.It is mostly a matter of this being reflected as an authority, which typically would not have holdings, instead of hierarchical Relationships to instances of other Works that can or do have holdings. Due to these fundamental characteristics, the initial definition of the 'type' attribute of Entry for Work has four values: individual, serial, collective, and referential, with the last covering references not specific to any given work (i.e. "uncontrolled heading"). Assembled collections are collective, as are "integrative" works.The need for an integrative value is questioned in that more specific categories of any 'class' can be recorded as Relationships to the collective Concept, e.g. Database, Loose-Leaf Service, Website, etc. Integrative could be added as an attribute value or established as an umbrella Concept.The specific terms may be more relevant to users' inquiries than the abstract "integrative" aggregation.In any case, top-level attributes need to be thought of in terms of categorical relationships to collective concepts as one part of a larger structure, possibly along these lines:

XOBIS' rich system of Relationships allows knitting together polyhierarchies of concepts, and linking amongst these as necessary, e.g. Collective Works to Collected Works. Evolving delineation of form/genre points in this direction.The overall structure may be one of considerable debate, but the implications of failing to correlate collective concepts with top-level attributes of a schema should not be ignored. Repeatable categorical Relationships can link into a structure, while attributes allow only a single mutually exclusive value and are not repeatable. The two should not conflict.The Singular element is also available as an Entry substitute to address the conflict between singular and plural usage.

The formal XOBIS Entry is envisioned as alleviating the need for separate authorities in some cases, as a 'role' attribute can allow a Work to serve both roles. In any case, authorities essentially identifying a single work (e.g. a translation of a version in a specific year that is unlikely to duplicate), rather than establishing a class could follow the model of an umbrella authority for its Entry (or a Variant) and be linked to the umbrella.The individual works could be linked to an authority and sequentially to one another to provide richer access and less repetition, instead of relying solely on co-filing in an alphabetical sequence.

Similarly, there are cases (e.g. multiple editions) where lacking authorities could provide valuable umbrellas for sequences of editions to avoid repeating the same information. Relationships from the individual editions to the umbrella, and sequential links between the editions could provide a richer navigational landscape. This example may help sketch the general idea, illustrating structural issues, not display.Subordinate Relationships are indicated here by indention, although they would be formally linked, cf. the Relationships section and Entry under Generic Elements. Duration is allowed for both Entry and Variant.

Duration Title (Code as Qualifier)
1950-1966: Entry Principles of Internal Medicine (Harrison)
1970- Variant: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine
Entry Principles of Internal Medicine (Harrison : 14th ed. : 1998).
Entry Principles of Internal Medicine (Harrison : 1st ed. : 1950).

The use of surnames as qualifiers is found in Finnish uniform title practice and in uniform titles for choreographic works.This, in combination with edition and date, should reduce the need for more contrived distinctions between ordinary publications. There are many issues when it comes to relationships between various media.One area of special interest is how derivative works should be entered. Relationships can certainly link between a uniform entry for an original and a multitude of derivatives. Similarities of name, however, suggest potential uniform entries to emphasize clarity over descriptive fidelity (which can be handled by Description). These might involve TitleSegments, or as shown here, double qualifiers on the same Title:

La Dame de Pique (Opera : Tchaikovsky : 1890) (Piano Score : 1910s)

Performance adds a twist in that the actual staging, etc. would be an Event, perhaps only an informational authority to provide context and catalog enrichment. Title currently does not extend to Event, but the double qualifier structure seems promising in this regard as well:

La Dame de Pique (Opera : Tchaikovsky : 1890) (Performance : 1906 : La Scala : Italian)

The scope of Work is broad in XOBIS.In delineating the Principal Elements, a number of problems appear to be resolved by recognizing that "intellectual" extends to works that may have gradually evolved and been shaped by various creators not necessarily in concert. Nonetheless, they have been concocted by people and seem to have proper names for the most part, and thus meet the criteria for Work.The following examples include some familiar uniform titles and several virtual works that currently appear to be handled separately or not in a decidedly consistent way.XOBIS attempts to integrate these, and uses Entry Substitutes, cf. the Generic Elements section above, to reference some in the role of authorities, e.g. calendars, classification schemes, and transliteration schemes. More specificity is possible by inclusion of known dates or editions in Qualifiers as appropriate.

Work Entry authority 'role' ConceptCategory:
Arabic (Alphabet) Alphabets
[Instantiated as String, e.g. X (The Letter)] Letters (Alphabet) ?
Computer Science (271 : Stanford). Computer-Based Medical Decision Making Academic Courses ?
[The Entry structure is: Title (String Code) Title]
Offered by: Stanford University. Computer Science Dept.Organization
Cyrillic (Alphabet) Alphabets
Dewey Decimal Classification Classification Schemes ?
[Currently Code DDC suggested as 'scheme' attribute]
French Revolutionary Calendar ? Calendars
[Currently, Code value FR used as 'scheme' attribute for Time]
Gregg Shorthand (Simplified) Shorthand
Gregg Shorthand (Diamond Jubilee) Shorthand
Java (Computer Programming Language) Computer Programming Languages ?
Lucinda Sans Unicode (Computer Font) Computer Fonts
Medical Library Assistance Act (United States : 1965) Laws ? [Legislation?]
Naskhi (Script) Scripts
Language: Arabic
Naturally Speaking (Computer Program) Translators (Computer Programs)
Romanization of the Korean Language (McCune-Reischauer) Transliteration Schemes ?
[Currently "Code" McCune-Reischauer suggested as 'scheme' attribute]

To provide some context for how XOBIS attempts to reduce complexity, this outline of the elements of Work summarizes substructure and serves to introduce Versions, discussed next.

The Holdings element uses XOBIS' ID technique to refer to a separate Holdings schema. The "including Rights" parenthetic above refers to our acknowledgement of the need for sophisticated access control both in relation to Holdings, but also when works are only referenced in Relationships.Rather than reinventing the wheel, we anticipate incorporating work done by others, and expect that a standard will emerge based on XML Access Control Language (XACL).

Holdings may link directly to a Work or to an individual Version as shown in the outline above. To provide further clarity with economy of expression, the optional Versions element distinguishes very similar works within a single Compositional Record. See Version in the Generic Elements section for details.This is both pragmatic and less confusing to users than finding multiple, difficult to distinguish records.Often digital, microform, print, and reprint versions of the same content do not merit separate cataloging.Rules could be established for lumping/splitting based on degree of variation. Each Version also carries a separate unique ID and permits direct linkage to other Records in the identical fashion provided for other Relationships discussed below. For example, a serial with digital and reprint versions might record organizational Relationships separately for each version:

Aggregator: Highwire Press
Printer: Johnson Reprint Corporation

Precise definitions for the various ideas presented are not attempted, and many case-related decisions must necessarily be tentative to illustrate problems. Instead of attempting to provide all the answers, we offer a structural framework within which it may be possible to better address the many complexities found in cataloging in a integrated fashion. Key to this effort is that works have distinctive title entries to stand alone, and that authorities function as virtual umbrella works, rather than identifying specific individual works, and that these are integrated into a single structure, potentially sharing the same Record.

One final example provides a segue into Relationships. Embedded relationships occur in entries for Works, although less commonly than for Being and Organization, discussed earlier.

Don Quixote (Choreographic Work : Radchenko after Petipa, M : 2001)