Structure of Organization Principal Element
3.The Organization, Man!(Organizational Records)
Organized groups, including jurisdictional subdivisions
<Organization type="governmental"> <Entry class="collective"> <Name>Library of Congress</Name> </Entry> </Organization>
The Organization element covers named organizations and corporate bodies–groups of deliberately organized people, with key distinctions from Being (for some less formal groups), Event (separate from their organizing committees or secretariats), and Place (for top-level political jurisdictions and places administered by organizations with the same or similar name).It also includes jurisdictional subdivisions. An Organizational Record reflects the specific organization or organizational subdivision for which a record is created without regard to its hierarchical dependency or uniqueness of name.
Using current cataloging rules, some of these names can stand alone, and others require either subordinate entry (pre-qualification) or post-qualification for proper identification. Thus qualified, they would appear mostly identical to traditional headings, but with the significant structural difference. The specific, bald name alone represents the Organization.Consult Qualifiers under Generic Elements for XOBIS' principles of identification/disambiguation.
Currently, Organization has an optional 'type' attribute with values:business, government, nonprofit, or other. Its Entry currently has four optional attributes: 'class' with values: individual, collective, or referential, 'scheme' using Code from Work, 'language', and 'transliteration'.Most organizations are collective, but individual carries the overall pattern for 'class' to individual professional practices, performers, etc. as opposed those more often thought of as organizations. An Entry has a Name with optional Qualifiers.
Because of XOBIS' emphasis on relationships, recording an appropriate Relationship is preferred to adding a Variant (cf. under Generic Elements) that is actually a relationship. (MARC now supports this in authorities field 510 subfield "w" byte "0" with value "t".)
|Moody Medical Library||Organization|
|Parent: University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston||Relationship: Organization|
|Moody Medical Library|
|University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. Moody Medical Library|
Such inter-record relationships are covered by the Relationships element, whereas Varia are used for recording equivalence or intra-record relationships for the same organization:
|Public Library and Museum of Dayton, Ohio||Organization|
|Dayton Public Library and Museum||Variant|
The XOBIS Qualifiers element and distinguishing equivalence from other relationships supports an envisioned indexing mechanism with alphabetical entries and variants handled differently from other relationships.Hierarchical levels based on Relationships could be accessed by "drilling down" to the desired level, perhaps indicated by arrows within an alphabetic sequence. Selection of see also relationships would reposition the user in the same or another index.
Note that the indexing substructure would omit pre-qualifiers, e.g. subordinate display of Bureau of Business and Economic Research "entered under" University of Akron. A qualifier would defeat the purpose of this hierarchical display. Such pre-qualifiers would likely be included in other displays. Further investigation of the relative merits and conditions for pre- and post-qualification are in order. See the Bartlesville example in the Place section below.
The same substructure could appear under any of an organization's Varia as well:
When Varia should be disambiguated deserves further study, cf.:
In this case, the first indexing example mimics XOBIS' hierarchical structure, intended to allow users to avoid wading through screens of subordinate entries when they are not interested in the parent. However, the second may be more useful in other cases, and might support the same hierarchical display more consistently.
Geopolitical entities present a special challenge because of their duality of location and jurisdiction. Using Place as a pre-qualifier permits inclusion of jurisdictional subdivisions as purely organizational without blurring the boundary between Place and Organization. The parent is excluded as being a type of Place (i.e. political geography).Entries for a jurisdiction itself can appear in organizational or locational indexes based on their attributes.This allows a Place to have subordinate relationships to an Organization and/or another Place as needed.The Bureau example of the University of Akron discussed above highlights the technique. More information is included under the Place element.
Meetings have traditionally been treated as corporate bodies.To reinforce structural integrity in XOBIS, we elected to treat meetings, congresses, etc. as members of the broader Event element.The warrant for this is that such headings seldom reflect a corporate identity, and when they do, a secretariat, organizing committee, or the like fills that role, in relationship to the event itself.If an organization responsible for an event is bibliographically important, this information would likely take the form of a sponsoring Relationship of an Event to an Organization. Instead of this subordinate form of entry:
In XOBIS, the event would have an "Organized by" Relationship to the committee:
The other common situation is generic names entered subordinately to a corporate body because the parent body's name is embedded within a subordinate body's name. Linking the unsplit name to its parent is structurally sound, but consider how this functions in hierarchical displays, e.g. the University of Akron example above, and the Bartlesville example in the Place section.
The Event section covers this and other information on the interplay between organizations and events. More exploration and testing is needed.
Organization excludes some groups depending on the variation in degree of organization. Families, dynasties, etc. are handled as collective records for Being, except for syndicated crime families that function like businesses, e.g. "Gambino Crime Family".Also excluded are top-level jurisdictions, e.g. Cherokee Nation, Peru, etc. that are treated as Place.
Businesses, such as sole proprietorships, partnerships, and professional practices, represent an Organization as well, although they may involve only one or two people, wearing a "business hat" so-to-speak.Fictitious business names (dba/doing business as) differ from fictional organizations, but share the relationship to individuals:
|Caprino's Italian Restaurant|
|Owner:||Awad, Anthony Selem||Being|
Embedded relationships in names representing a person acting in a corporate role deserve further study. Similar cases appear in the Being section. As constructed, such names are tenuous in nature and might be represented more accurately in XOBIS if their entry better reflected an
Organization (perhaps Presidency). This case indicates that Mitterand was President of France from 1981-1995:
Fictional entities in general express categorical Relationships to an implied Concept, Fictional Organizations, and Relationships to the Concept they fictionalize.These examples illustrate some relationships of fictional or imaginary organizations, using the Singular entry substitute for each Concept. Rather than using Qualifiers routinely, they may only be necessary to convey the sense of an organization, due to the presence of a fictional Relationship.
|Galactic Library (Trantor)|
|Earlier:||Imperial Library (Trantor)||Organization|
|Located:||Trantor (Fictional Planet)||Place|
|Lard Information Council|
|Section 31 (Fictional Organization)|