Project 1: Imaging-based biomarkers
We have been developing image-based biomarkers to improve prognostication and prediction of therapy response in cancer. Our approach incorporates quantitative radiomic profiling of the tumor and intratumoral subregions, as well as surrounding parenchyma. We are also exploring the biological basis of clinically relevant imaging phenotypes by correlating with molecular data. Importantly, we have shown that the newly identified imaging markers complement established biomarkers and their integration further improves prediction accuracy. We have been conducting imaging biomarker studies on breast, lung, brain, head and neck cancers, using a variety of modalities including PET, CT, and MRI (Cui et al. Radiology, 2016, Wu et al. Radiology, 2016, Wu et al. Radiology, 2017, Wu et al. Clinical Cancer Research, 2017, Wu et al. Radiology, 2018).
Project 2: Molecularly-based biomarkers
In addition to our work on imaging, we are also developing molecular biomarkers to predict therapy response and prognosis. Recently we have developed an individualized immune-based gene expression signature that predicts survival of non-small cell lung cancer and validated it in large cohorts of over 2,000 patients (Li et al. JAMA Oncology, 2017). In ongoing work, we are developing gene signatures that will identify which patients are most likely to benefit from radiation therapy in breast cancer. Additionally, we are interested in early detection of aggressive cancers through analyses of the genetic profiles.
Project 3: MRI-based radiation treatment planning
MRI has important advantages over the current gold standard – CT for radiation treatment planning, including improved target delineation. However, the lack of electron density information in MRI has been a major technical hurdle for its clinical adoption. We developed a unifying Bayesian approach that combines both geometry and intensity information for more reliable electron density mapping using MRI (Gudur et al. PMB, 2014). In ongoing work we are further improving the accuracy and robustness of this new technique.
Our research has been supported by multiple grants from the National Cancer Institute (K99/R00 CA166186, R01 CA193730, R01 CA222512) at the NIH.